Aagaard, K. and E. C. Carmack, 1989: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485-14498.

Aagaard, K., E. Fahrbach, J. Meincke, and J. H. Swift, 1991: Saline outflow from the Arctic Ocean: Its contribution to the deep waters of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Iceland seas. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 20433-20441.

Aagaard, K., J. H. Swift, and E. C. Carmack, 1985: Thermohaline circulation in the Arctic mediterranean seas. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 4833-4846.

Abakumova, G. M. and and, 1994: Estimation of the effect of Pinatubo on solar radiation and transmittance of the atmosphere on the base of ground measurements (in Russian summary in English). Fizika atmosfery i okeana, 30, 405-410.

Abakumova, G. M. and Y. V. Yarkho, 1992: Variations of aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere in Moscow during the last 37 years (in Russian, summary in English). Meteor. i Gidrol., 11, 107-113.

Abarbanel, H. D. I., D. D. Holm, J. E. Marsden, and T. Ratiu, 1984: Richardson number criterion for the nonlinear stability of three-dimensional stratified flow. Phys. Rev. Lett., 52, 2352-2355.

Abareshi, B. and P. H. Schuepp, 1988: Sensible heat flux estimation over the FIFE site by neural networks. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 1185-1197.

Abareshi, B. and P. H. Schuepp, 1998: Sensible Heat Flux Estimation over the FIFE Site by Neural Networks. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 1185-1197.

Abbe, C., 1910: Energy of storms. The Mechanics of the Earthís Atmosphere. A Collection of Translations, M. Margules Ed. Smithsonian Institution, 376-478.

Abbot, C. E. and T. W. Cannon, 1972: A droplet generator with electronic control of size, production rate and charge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 43, 1313-1317.

Abbott, M. R., O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, H. R. Gordon, K. L. Carder, F. E. M. ller-Karger, and W. E. Esaias, 1994: Ocean color in the 21st century: A strategy for a 20-year time series. NASA Tech. Memo, Vol. 17, 104-566.

Abbott, M. R. and D. B. Chelton, 1991: Advances in passive remote sensing of the ocean. Rev. Geophys., (Suppl), 555-556.

Abbott, P. F. and R. C. Tabony, 1985: The estimation of humidity parameters. Meteor. Mag., 114, 49-56.

Abdalati, W., C. Otto, K. Steffen, and K. C. Jezek, 1995: Comparison of brightness temperatures from SSM/ I instruments on the DMSP F8 and F11 satellites for Antarctica and the Greenland ice sheets. Int. J. Remote Sens., 16, 1223-1229.

Abdella, K. and N. McFarlane, 1997: A New Second-Order Turbulence Closure Scheme for the Planetary Boundary Layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 1850-1867.

Abdella, K. and N. McFarlane, 1999: "Reply to Comments on ""A New Second-Order Turbulence Closure Scheme for the Planetary Boundary Layer""". J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 3482-3483.

Abdella, K. and N. McFarlane, 2001: Modelling Boundary-Layer Clouds with a Statistical Cloud Scheme and a Second-Order Turbulence Closure. Bound. Lay. Meteor., 98, 387.

AbdelWahab, M., H. AbdelBasset, and A. M. Lasheen, 2002: On the mechanism of winter cyclogenesis in relation to vertical axis tilt. Meteor. Atmos. Phy., 81, 103-128.

Abdou, W. A., M. C. Helmlinger, J. E. Conel, C. J. Bruegge, S. H. Pilorz, J. V. Martonchik, and B. J. Gaitley, 2001: Ground measurements of surface BRF and HDRF using PARABOLA III (Paper 2000JD900654). J. Geophy. Res., 106, 11,967-11,976.

Abe, M., 1941: Mountain clouds, their forms and connected air current. Part II. Bull. Central Met. Obs. Japan, VII, 3, 93-145.

Abe, M. E., 1932: The formation of cloud by the obstruction of Mount Fuji. Geophys. Mag., 6, 1- 10.

Abe, S., 1987: The looping motion and the asymmetry of tropical cyclone. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 65, 247-257.

Abe, S., 1988: The asymmetry and movement of tropical cyclones: A numerical simulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 66, 791-795.

Abe, S. and T. Yoshida, 1982: The effect of the width of a peninsula to the sea breeze. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 60, 1074-1084.

Abel, P., B. Guenther, R. Galimore, and J. Cooper, 1993: Calibration results for NOAA-11 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 from congruent path aircraft measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10, 493-508.

Abele, J. and D. Clement, 1980: Chebyshev approach to fit atmospheric aerosol size distributions. Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 53, 469-485.

Aberson, S. D. and M. DeMaria, 1994: Verification of a nested barotropic hurricane track forecast model (VICBAR). Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 2804-2815.

Abgrall, R., 2001: Towards the Ultimate Conservative Scheme: Following the Quest. J. Comp. Phys., 167, 277.

Abgrall, R. and S. Karni, 2001: Computations of Compressible Multifluids. J. Comp. Phy., 169, 594-623.

Abid, M., B. Andreotti, S. Douady, and C. Nore, 2002: Oscillating structures in a stretched-compressed vortex. J. Fluid Mech., 450, 207-234.

Abiodun, B. J. and L. Enger, 2002: The role of advection of fluxes in modelling dispersion in convective boundary layers. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 128, 1589-1608.

Ablowitz, M. J., D. J. Kaup, A. C. Newell, and H. Segur, 1974: The inverse scattering transform-Fourier analysis for nonlinear problems. Stud. Appl. Math., 53, 259-315.

Abou, B., J. E. Wesfreid, and S. Roux, 2000: The normal field instability in ferrofluids: hexagon--square transition mechanism and wavenumber selection. J. Fluid Mech., 217.

Abraham, F. F., 1970: Functional dependence of drag coefficient of a sphere on Reynolds number. Phys. Fluids, 13, 2194-2195.

Abraham, R. H. and C. D. Shaw, 1992: Dynamics-The Geometry of Behavior. Addison-Wesley, 642.

Abramopoulos, F., C. Rosenzweig, and B. Choudhury, 1988: Improved ground hydrology calculations for global climate models (GCMs) : Soil water movement and evapotranspiration. J. Climate, 1, 921-941.

Abramowitz, M. and I. A. Stegun, 1964: Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards. Appl. Math. Ser., 55, 1045.

Abramowitz, M. and I. A. Stegun, 1970: Handbook of Mathematical Functions. Applied Mathematics Series, 55.

Abramowitz, M. and I. A. Stegun, 1972: Handbook of Mathematical Functions. Dover, 1046.

Abrashkevich, A. G., M. S. Kaschiev, and S. I. Vinitsky, 2000: A New Method for Solving an Eigenvalue Problem for a System of Three Coulomb Particles within the Hyperspherical Adiabatic Representation. J. Comp. Phys., 163, 328.

Abreu, V. J., P. B. Hays, D. A. Ortland, W. R. Skinner, and J.-H. Yee, 1989: Absorption and emission line shapes in the O2 Atmospheric bands: Theoretical model and limb viewing simulations. Appl. Opt., 28, 2128-2137.

Abromowitz, M. and I. A. Stegan, 1972: Handbook of Mathematical Functions. Dover, 1045.

Abtew, W., J. Obeysekera, and G. Shih, 1993: Spatial analysis for monthly rainfall in south Florida. Water Resour. Bull., 29, 179-188.

Academy Press, M., A. F., and A. H. Knap, 1996: Overview of the U.S. JGDFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study and the Hydrostation S Program. Deep-Sea Res., 43, 157-198.

Aceituno, P., 1988: On the functioning of the Southern Oscillation in the South American sector. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 505-525.

Aceituno, P., 1988: On the functioning of the Southern Oscillation in the South American sector. Part I: Surface climate. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 505-525.

Aceituno, P., 1992: El Nin˜o, the Southern Oscillation, and ENSO: Confusing names for a complex ocean-atmosphere interaction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73, 483-485.

Achatz, U. and G. Branstator, 1999: A Two-Layer Model with Empirical Linear Corrections and Reduced Order for Studies of Internal Climate Variability. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 3140-3160.

Achatz, U. and G. Schmitz, 1997: On the Closure Problem in the Reduction of Complex Atmospheric Models by PIPs and EOFs: A Comparison for the Case of a Two-Layer Model with Zonally Symmetric Forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 2452-2474.

Achatz, U., G. Schmitz, and K.-M. Greisiger, 1995: Principal interaction patters in baroclinic wave life cycles. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 3201-3213.

Achberger, C., M. Ekstrom, and L. Barring, 2002: Estimation of local near-surface wind conditions - a comparison of WASP and regression based techniques. Meteor. App., 9, 211-222.

Acheson, D. J., 1976: On over-reflexion. J. Fluid Mech., 77, 433-472.

Acheson, D. J., 1990: Elementary Fluid Dynamics. Clarendon Press, 397 pp.

Achtemeier, G. L., 1975: On the initialization problem: A variational adjustment method. Mon. Wea. Rev., 103, 1089-1103.

Achtemeier, G. L., 1983: The relationship between the surface wind field and convective precipitation over the St. Louis area. J. Clim. Appl. Meteor., 22, 982-999.

Achtemeier, G. L., 1989: Modification of a successive corrections objective analysis for improved derivative calculations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 78-86.

Achtemeier, G. L., 1991: The use of insects as tracers for "clear-air" boundary-layer studies by Doppler radar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 8, 746-765.

Achtor, T. H. and L. H. Horn, 1986: Spring season Colorado cyclones. Part I: Use of composites to relate upper and lower tropospheric wind fields. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 733-743.

AchutaRao, K. and K. R. Sperber, 2002: Simulation of the El Nino Southern Oscillation: Results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Climate Dynamics, 19, 191-210.

Ackerman, A. S., O. B. Toon, and and, 1994: Reassessing the dependence of cloud condensation nucleus concentration on formation rate. Nature, 367, 445-450.

Ackerman, A. S., O. B. Toon, and and, 1995: A model for particle microphysics, turbulent mixing, and radiative transfer in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer and comparisons with measurements. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 1204-1236.

Ackerman, A. S., O. B. Toon, and P. V. Hobbs, 1993: Dissipation of marine stratiform clouds and collapse of the marine boundary layer due to depletion of cloud condensation nuclei by clouds. Science, 262, 226-229.

Ackerman, B., 1958: Turbulence around tropical cumuli. J. Meteor., 15, 69-74.

Ackerman, B., 1959: The variability of the water contents of tropical cumuli. J. Meteor., 16, 191-198.

Ackerman, B., 1985: Temporal march of the Chicago heat island. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 24, 547-554.

Ackerman, B., 1987: Climatology of Chicago area urban-rural differences in humidity. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 26, 427-430.

Ackerman, B. and R. Y. Sun, 1985: Predictions by two one-dimensional cloud models: A comparison. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 24, 617-628.

Ackerman, S. A. and S. K. Cox, 1981: Aircraft observation of the shortwave fractional absorptance of nonhomogeneous clouds. J. Appl. Meteor., 20, 1510-1515.

Ackerman, S. A. and S. K. Cox, 1982: The Saudi Arabian heat low: Aerosol distributions and thermodynamic structure. J. Geophys. Res., 87, 8991-9002.

Ackerman, S. A., R. A. Frey, and W. L. Smith, 1992: Radiation budget studies using collocated observations from AVHRR, HIRS/ 2, and ERBE instruments. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 11513-11525.

Ackerman, S. A., W. L. Smith, J. D. Spinhirne, and H. E. Revercomb, 1990: The 27-28 October 1986 FIRE IFO cirrus case study: Spectral properties of cirrus clouds in the 8-12 mm window. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 2377-2388.

Ackerman, T. P., K.-N. Lion, and C. B. Levoy, 1976: Infrared radiative transfer in polluted atmospheres. J. Appl. Meteor., 15, 28-35.

Ackerman, T. P., K.-N. Liou, F. P. J. Valero, and L. Pfister, 1988: Heating rates in tropical anvils. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1606-1623.

Ackerman, T. P. and O. B. Toon, 1981: Absorption of visible radiation in atmosphere containing mixtures of absorbing and non-absorbing particles. Appl. Opt., 20, 3661-3668.

Ackley, S. F., V. I. Lytle, K. M. Golden, M. N. Darling, and G. A. Kuehn, 1995: Microwave backscatter measurements from first year pack ice in the eastern Weddell Sea. Antarct. J. U.S., in press.

ACS, 1995: Cancer Facts and Figures. Publ. 95-375-No. 5008.95, American Cancer Society, 29.

Acton, J. M., H. E. Huppert, and M. G. Worster, 2001: Two-dimensional viscous gravity currents flowing over a deep porous medium. J. Fluid Mech., 440, 359-380.

Adachi, M., K. Okuyama, Y. Kousaka, S. W. Moon, and J. H. Sein-feld, 1990: Facilitated aerosol sizing using the differential mobility analyzer. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 12, 225-239.

Adamec, D. and R. Elsberry, 1985: Response of an intense oceanic current system to cross-stream cooling events. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 273-287.

Adamec, D., R. L. Elsberry, R. W. Garwood, and R. L. Haney, 1981: An embedded mixed-layer-ocean circulation model. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 6, 69-96.

Adamowski, K. and A. F. Smith, 1972: Stochastic generation of rainfall. J. Hydraul. Div. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 98, 1935-1945.

Adams, J., 1989: MUDPACK: Multigrid portable FORTRAN software for the efficient solution of linear elliptic partial differential equations. Appl. Math. Comput., 34, 113-146.

Adams, J., 1991: Recent enhancements in MUDPACK, a multigrid software package for elliptic partial differential equations. Appl. Math. Comput., 43, 79-93.

Adams, J. C., A. K. Cline, M. A. Drake, and R. A. Sweet, 1975: NCAR Software Support LibraryNCAR-TN/lA-105, Boulder, Colorado pp.

Adams, J. C. and P. N. Swarztrauber, 1999: SPHEREPACK 3.0: A Model Development Facility. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 1872-1878.

Adams, J. M., N. A. Bond, and J. E. Overland, 2000: Regional Variability of the Arctic Heat Budget in Fall and Winter. J. Climate, 13, 3500.

Adams, M. L., E. W. Larsen, and G. C. Pomraning, 1989: Benchmark results for particle transport in a binary Markov statistical medium. J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer, 42, 253-266.

Adams, N., 2002: Advances in forecasting systems at the Antarctic Meteorological Centre, Casey. Meteor. Appl., 9, 335-344.

Adams, N. A., 2000: Direct simulation of the turbulent boundary layer along a compression ramp at M==3 and Re theta == 1685. J. Fluid Mech., 47.

Adams, N. A. and S. Stolz, 2002: A Subgrid-Scale Deconvolution Approach for Shock Capturing. J. Comp. Phy., 178, 391-426.

Adang, T. C. and R. L. Gall, 1989: Structure and dynamics of the Arizona monsoon boundary. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 1423-1438.

Adcroft, A., C. Hill, and J. Marshall, 1997: Representation of Topography by Shaved Cells in a Height Coordinate Ocean Model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2293-2315.

Adcroft, A. J., C. N. Hill, and J. C. Marshall, 1999: A New Treatment of the Coriolis Terms in C-Grid Models at Both High and Low Resolutions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 1928-1936.

Adedoyin, J. A., 2000: SST-induced climate change in tropical North Africa: The intermediary role of lower tropospheric oscillations. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 75, 135.

Adem, J., 1956: A series solution for the barotropic vorticity equation and its application in the study of atmospheric vortices. Tellus, 8, 364-372.

Aden, A. L. and M. Kerker, 1951: Scattering of electromagnetic waves from two concentric spheres. J. Appl. Phys., 22, 1242-1246.

Adler, C., R. Kneusel, and W. Younger, 2001: Chaos, Number Theory, and Computers. J. Comp. Phys., 166, 165.

Adler, R. F., G. J. Huffman, and P. R. Keehn, 1994: Global tropical rain estimates from microwave-adjusted geosynchronous IR data. Remote Sens. Rev., 11, 125-152.

Adler, R. F., G. J. Huffman, and E. J. Nelkin, 2000: Tropical Rainfall Distributions Determined Using TRMM Combined with Other Satellite and Rain Gauge Information. J. App. Meteor., 39, 2007.

Adler, R. F. and R. A. Mack, 1986: Thunderstorm cloud top dynamics as inferred from satellite observations and a cloud top parcel model. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 1945-1960.

Adler, R. F., R. A. Mack, N. Prasad, H.-Y. M. Yeh, and I. M. Hakkarinen, 1990: Aircraft microwave observations and simulations of deep convection from 18 to 183 GHz. Part I: Observations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 7, 377-391.

Adler, R. F. and A. J. Negri, 1988: A satellite infrared technique to estimate tropical convective and stratiform rainfall. J. Appl. Meteor., 27, 280-296.

Adler, R. F., A. J. Negri, P. R. Keehn, and I. M. Hakkarine, 1993: Estimation of monthly rainfall over Japan and surrounding waters from a combination of low-orbit microwave and geosynchronous IR data. J. Appl. Meteor., 32, 335-356.

Adler, R. F., H.-Y. Yeh, N. Prasad, W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson, 1991: Microwave rainfall simulations of a tropical convective system with a three-dimensional cloud model. J. Appl. Meteor., 30, 924-953.

Adler, R. R. and I. M. Hakkarinen, 1991: Aircraft multifrequency passive microwave observations of light precipitation over the ocean. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 8, 201-220.

Adler, R. R., R. A. Mack, N. Prasad, H. Y. M. Yeh, and I. M. Hakkarine, 1990: Aircraft microwave observations and simulations of deep convection from 18 to 183 GHz. Part I: Observations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 7, 377-391.

Adlerman, E. and K. K. Droegemeier, 1996: Numerical simulations of cyclic mesocyclogenesis. Preprints, 18th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Francisco, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 728-732.

Adlerman, E. J., K. K. Droegemeier, and R. Davies-Jones, 1999: A Numerical Simulation of Cyclic Mesocyclogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2045–2069.

Adomian, G., 1983: Stochastic Systems. Academic Press, 331.

Adomian, G., 1994: Solving Frontier Problems of Physics: The Decomposition Method. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 352.

Adomian, G. and K. Malakian, 1980: Operator theoretic solution of stochastic systems. J. Math. Anal. Appl., 76, 183-201.

Adrian, R. J., R. T. D. S. Ferreira, and T. Boberg, 1986: Turbulent thermal convection in wide horizontal fluid layers. Expts. in Fluids, 4, 121-141.

Adrian, R. J., R. T. S. Ferreira, and T. Boberg, 1986: Turbulent thermal convection in wide horizontal fluid layers. Exp. Fluids, 4, 121-141.

Adrian, R. J., C. D. Meinhart, and C. D. Tomkins, 2000: Vortex organization in the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech., 1.

Aebischer, U. and C. Schär, 1998: Low-Level Potential Vorticity and Cyclogenesis to the Lee of the Alps. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 186-207.

AES 1994, C., F. H. Quinn S, J. Bolsenga, and G. A. Leshkevic, 1983: NOAA Great Lakes Ice Atlas. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 115.

AES 1994, C., R. Snider, d R. L. Lawrence, 1985: Comparison of 1983 Great Lakes winter weather and ice conditions with pre-vious years. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 291-303.

AES 1994 CO, a. D. M. R., 1995: Changes in winter air temperatures near Lake Michigan during 1851-1993, deter-mined from regional lake-ice records. J. Limnol. Oceanogr., 40, 165-176.

Afanasyev, Y. D. and W. R. Peltier, 1998: The Three-Dimensionalization of Stratified Flow over Two-Dimensional Topography. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 19-39.

Afifi, A. A. and S. P. Azen, 1972: Statistical Analysis: A Computer Oriented Approach. Academic Press, 366.

AFOTEC, 1989: Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) initial operational test and evaluation, phase II [IOT&E2]. Final Report. Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center, Kirtland AFB, NM, 68.

Agee, E. and K. E. Dowell, 1974: Observational studies of mesoscale cellular convection. J. Appl. Meteor., 13, 46-53.

Agee, E. and A. Gluhovsky, 1999: LES Model Sensitivities to Domains, Grids, and Large-Eddy Timescales. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 599-604.

Agee, E. and A. Gluhovsky, 1999: Further Aspects of Large Eddy Simulation Model Statistics and Inconsistencies with Field Data. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2948-2950.

Agee, E. M., 1982: An introduction to shallow convective systems. Cloud Dynamics, Agee, E. M. and T. Asai, Eds., D. Reidel Publishing, 423.

Agee, E. M., 1987: Mesoscale cellular convection over the oceans. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 10, 317-341.

Agee, E. M., 1991: Trends in cyclone and anticyclone frequency and comparison with periods of warming and cooling over the Northern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 4, 163-267.

Agee, E. M. and T. S. Chen, 1973: A model for investigating eddy viscosity effects on mesoscale cellular convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 180-188.

Agee, E. M., T. S. Chen, and K. E. Doswell, 1973: A review of mesoscale cellular convection. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 10, 1004-1012.

Agee, E. M. and M. L. Hart, 1990: Boundary layer and mesoscale structure over Lake Michigan during a wintertime cold air outbreak. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 2293-2316.

Agee, E. M. and F. E. Lomax, 1978: Structure of the mixed layer and inversion layer associated with patterns of MCC during AMTEX '75. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2281-2301.

Agee, E. M. and F. E. Lomax, 1978: Structure of the mixed layer and inversion layer associated with patterns of mesoscale cellular convection during AMTEX 75. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2281-2301.

Agee, E. M., D. M. Rozema, and G.-S. Rao, 1993: Mean and turbulence statistics in a wintertime convective boundary layer over Lake Michigan. J. Great Lakes Res., 19, 453-469.

Agnon, Y. and E. Pelinovsky, 2001: Accurate refraction-diffraction equations for water waves on a variable-depth rough bottom. J. Fluid Mech., 449, 301-312.

Agra, C. and D. Nof, 1993: Collision and separation of boundary currents. Deep-Sea Res., 40, 2259-2282.

Agrawal, K., P. N. Loezos, M. Syamlal, and S. Sundaresan, 2001: The role of meso-scale structures in rapid gas-solid flows. J. Fluid Mech., 445, 151-186.

Agrawal, Y. C. and C. J. Belting, 1988: Laser velocimetry for ben-thic sediment transport. Deep-Sea Res., 35, 1047-1067.

Agrawal, Y. C., E. A. Terray, M. A. Donelan, P. A. Hwang, A. J. W. III, W. M. Drennan, K. K. Kahma, and S. A. Kitaigoro, 1992: Enhanced dissipation of kinetic energy beneath surface waves. Nature, 359, 219-220.

Agriculture, U. S. D. o., 1951: Soil survey manual, 1-503 pp.

Aguado, E., 1990: Elevational and latitudinal patterns of snow accumulation departures from normal in the Sierra Nevada. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 42, 177-185.

Aguado, E., D. Cayan, L. Riddle, and M. Roos, 1992: Climatic fluctuations and the timing of West Coast streamflow. J. Climate, 5, 1468-1483.

Aha, D. W. and R. L. Bankert, 1994: Feature selection for case-based classification of cloud types: An empirical comparison. Case-Based Reasoning: Papers from the 1994 Workshop. Tech. Rep. WS-94-07, Menlo Park CA, AAAI Press, 106-112.

Ahlquist, N. C. and and, 1969: Measurement of the wavelength dependence of atmospheric extinction due to scatter. Atmos. Environ., 3, 551-564.

Ahlquist, N. C. and R. J. Charlson, 1967: A new instrument for measuring the visual quality of air. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 17, 467-469.

Ahren, N. C. and E. L. Scott, 1981: Career Outcomes in a Matched Sample of Men and Women Ph.D.s. National Acad-emy Press, 95.

Aioyoshi, H., 2002: Chemistry and Temperature Perturbations Due to Pinatubo Aerosols Calculated by a Chemical-radiative Coupled 1-D Model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80, 361-385.

Aires, F., A. Chedin, N. A. Scott, and W. B. Rossow, 2002: A Regularized Neural Net Approach for Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Temperatures with the IASI Instrument. J. App. Meteor., 41, 144-159.

Air-Sea Interaction Group Tech. Rep. Somerville, R. C. J. and L. A. Remer, 1984: Cloud optical thickness feedbacks in the CO2 climate problem. J. Geophys. Res., 89, 9688-9672.

Aitchison, J. and J. A. C. Brown, 1957: The Lognormal Distribution. Cambridge University Press, 176.

Aitchison, J. and I. R. Dunsmore, 1975: Statistical Prediction analysis. Cambridge University Press, 273.

Aitken, G. W. and R. L. Berg, 1968: Digital solution of modified Berggren equation to calculate depths of freeze or thaw in mul-tilayered systems. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Special Rep. 122, 18.

Aizen, E. M., V. B. Aizen, and A. N. Krenke, 2000: Heat exchange during snow ablation in plains and mountains of Eurasia. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 27013.

Akademische Vulagesellschoff. Liou, K. N., 1980: An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation. Academic Press, 392.

Akahori, K. and S. Yoden, 1997: Zonal Flow Vacillation and Bimodality of Baroclinic Eddy Life Cycles in a Simple Global Circulation Model. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 2349-2361.

Akai, Y., T. Kanzaki, A. Shimota, and Y. Ichikawa, 2002: Radio Acoustic Sounding in Urban Meteorological Observations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 19, 1193-1198.

Akaike, H., 1974: A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, 6, 716-723.

Akaiwa, N., K. Thornton, and P. W. Voorhees, 2001: Large-Scale Simulations of Microstructural Evolution in Elastically Stressed Solids. J. Comput. Phy., 173, 61-86.

Akcelik, V., B. Jaramaz, and O. Ghattas, 2001: Nearly Orthogonal Two-Dimensional Grid Generation with Aspect Ratio Control. J. Comp. Phy., 171, 805-821.

Aki, K. and P. G. Richards, 1980: Quantitative Seismology. Vol. 2. W. H. Freeman, 373.

Akima, H., 1970: A new method of interpolation and smooth curve fitting based on local procedures. J. Assoc. Comput. Mach., 17, 589-602.

Akima, H., 1978: A method of bivariate interpolation and smooth surface fitting for values given at irregularly distributed points. ACM Trans. Math. Software, 4, 148-159.

Akima, H., 1984: On estimating partial derivatives for bivariate interpolation of scattered data. Rocky Mt. J. Math., 14, 41-52.

Akitomo, K., T. Awaji, and N. Imasato, 1991: Kuroshio path variation south of Japan. 1. Barotropic inflow-outflow model. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 2549-2560.

Akitomo, K., T. Awaji, and N. Imasato, 1995: Open ocean deep convection in the Weddell Sea: Two-dimensional numerical experiments with a nonhydrostatic model. Deep-Sea Res., 42, 53-73.

Akiyama, T., 1973: The large-scale aspects of the characteristic features of the Baiu Front. Pap. Meteor. Geophys., 24, 157-188.

Akiyama, T., 1978: Mesoscale pulsation of convective rain in medium-scale disturbances developed in Bain front. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan., 56, 267-283.

Akiyama, T., 1990: Large, synoptic and mesoscale variations of the Baiu Front during July 1982: Part II: Frontal structure and disturbances. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 68, 557-574.

Akiyoshi, H., S. Sugata, T. Sugita, H. Nakajima, H. Hayashi, J. Kurokawa, and M. Takahashi, 2002: Low-N20 Air Masses after the Breakdown of the Arctic Polar Vortex in 1997 Simulated by the CCSR/NIES Nudging CTM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80, 451-463.

Aktas, O. and N. R. Aluru, 2002: A Combined Continuum/DSMC Technique for Multiscale Analysis of Microfluidic Filters. J. Comp. Phy., 178, 342-372.

Akyildiz, V., 1984: Systematic errors in the behavior, of cyclones in the ECMWF operational models. Tellus, 37A, 297-308.

Akyildiz, V., 1985: Systematic errors in the behaviour of cyclones in the ECMWF operational models. Tellus, 37A, 297-308.

Akylas, E., M. Tombrou, D. Lalas, and S. S. Zilitinkevich, 2001: Surface fluxes under shear-free convection. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 1183-1198.

Akylas, T. R. and and, 1982: The evolution of waves near direct-resonance conditions. Stud. Appl. Math., 67, 107-123.

Akylas, T. R. and D. J. Benney, 1980: Direct resonance in nonlinear wave systems. Stud. Appl. Math., 63, 209-226.

Al Nakshabandi, G. and H. Kohnke, 1965: Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of soils as related to moisture tension and other physical properties. Agric. Meteor., 2, 271-279.

Alados-Arboledas, L., J. Vida, and J. L. Jimenez, 1988: Effects of solar radiation on the performance of pyrgeometers with silicon domes. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 5, 666-670.

Alaka, M. A., 1960: The airflow over mountains, 1-135 pp.

Alapaty, K., R. Mathur, and T. Odman, 1998: Intercomparison of Spatial Interpolation Schemes for Use in Nested Grid Models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 243-249.

Alapaty, K., N. L. Seaman, D. S. Niyogi, and A. F. Hanna, 2001: Assimilating Surface Data to Improve the Accuracy of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Simulations. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 2068-2082.

Albee, A. L. and D. F. Palluconi, 1990: Mars Observer's Global Mapping Mission. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 71, 1099; 1-107.

Albensoeder, S. and H. C. Kuhlmann, 2002: Linear stability of rectangular cavity flows driven by anti-parallel motion of two facing walls. J. Fluid Mech., 458, 153-180.

Alberghi, S., A. Maurizi, and F. Tampieri, 2002: Relationship between the Vertical Velocity Skewness and Kurtosis Observed during Sea-Breeze Convection. J. Appl. Meteor., 41, 885-889.

Alberoni, P. P., T. Andersson, P. Mezzasalma, D. B. Michelson, and S. Nanni, 2001: Use of the vertical reflectivity profile for identification of anomalous propagation. Meteor. App., 8, 257-266.

Albers, S., 1995: The LAPS wind analysis. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 34-2352.

Albers, S., 1995: The Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) : Analyses of clouds, precipitation, and temperature. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 342-352.

Albers, S. C., J. A. McGinley, D. A. Birkenheuer, and J. R. Smart, 1996: The local analysis and prediction system (LAPS): Analysis of clouds, precipitation and temperature. Wea. Forecasting, 11, 273-287.

Albert, P., R. Bennartz, and J. Fischer, 2001: Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Water Vapor from Backscattered Sunlight in Cloudy Atmospheres. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 18, 865-874.

Alberty, R. L. and S. L. Barnes, 1979: SESAME 1979 Plans for Operations and Data Archival.

Alberty, R. L., D. W. Burgess, and T. T. Fujita, 1980: Severe weather events of 10 April 1979. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 61, 1033-1034.

Alberty, R. L., D. W. Burgess, C. E. Hane, and J. F. Weaver, 1979: SESAME 1979 Operations Summary.

Albignat, J. P. and R. J. Reed, 1980: The origin of African wave disturbances during Phase III of GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1827-1839.

Albrecht, B., 1981: Parameterization of trade-cumulus amounts. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 97-105.

Albrecht, B. and S. K. Cox, 1977: Procedures for improving pyr-geometer performance. J. Appl. Meteor., 16, 188-197.

Albrecht, B., V. Ramanathan, and B. Boville, 1986: The effects of cumulus moisture transports on the simulation of climate with a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 2443-2462.

Albrecht, B. A., 1981: Parameterization of trade cumulus cloud amounts. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 97-105.

Albrecht, B. A., 1983: A cumulus parameterization for climate studies of the tropical atmosphere. Part I: Model formulation and sensitivity tests. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2166-2182.

Albrecht, B. A., 1984: A model study of downstream variations of the thermodynamic structure of the trade winds. Tellus, 36A, 187-202.

Albrecht, B. A., 1989: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness. Science, 245, 1227-1230.

Albrecht, B. A., 1991: Fractional cloudiness and cloud-top entrainment instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 1519-1525.

Albrecht, B. A., 1993: Effects of precipitation on the thermodynamic structure of the trade wind boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 732-77337.

Albrecht, B. A. and R. W. Barlow, 1989: Large-scale variability in marine stratocumulus clouds defined from simultaneous aircraft and satellite measurements. Fire Science Results 1989, NASA Conference Publication 3079. NASA Langley Research Center, 9-13.

Albrecht, B. A., A. K. Betts, W. H. Schubert, and S. K. Cox, 1979: A model of the thermodynamic structure of the trade wind boundary layer. Part I: Theoretical development and sensitivity tests. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 73-89.

Albrecht, B. A., C. S. Bretherton, D. Johnson, W. H. Schubert, and A. S. Frisch, 1995: The Atlantic Stratocumulus Experiment-ASTEX. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 889-904.

Albrecht, B. A., C. S. Bretherton, D. Johnson, W. H. Schubert, and A. S. Frisch, 1995: The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment-ASTEX. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 889-904.

Albrecht, B. A. and S. K. Cox, 1976: Pyrgeometer data reduction and calibration procedures. Colorado State University Atmospheric Science Paper 251, Dept. of Atmos. Sci., Colorado State University, 48.

Albrecht, B. A., M. P. Jensen, and W. J. Syrett, 1995: Marine boundary layer structure and fractional cloudiness. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 14209-14222.

Albrecht, B. A., D. A. Randall, and S. Nicholls, 1988: Observations of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 69, 618-626.

Albrecht, F., 1965: Untersuchungen des Wa¨rmeund Wasserhaus-haltes der su¨ dlichen Kontinente. Ber. Dtsch Wetterdienstes, 14, 54.

Albright, M. D., E. E. Recker, R. J. Reed, and R. Dang, 1985: The diurnal variation of deep convection and inferred precipitation in the central tropical Pacific during January-February 1979. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 1663-1680.

Albritton, D. and Coauthors, 1993: The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: Interim assessment of the NASA high-speed research program. Panel on Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft. National Research Council, Washington, DC, 150.

Aldridge, J. N. and A. M. Davies, 1993: A high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic tidal model of the eastern Irish Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 207-224.

Alduchov, O., 1988: On calculation accuracy of humidity characteristics. Processing of RIHMI-WDC Russian Research Institute of Hydro-meteorological Information, Obninsk, Russia. 147, 40-47.

Alduchov, O. A. and R. E. Eskridge, 1995: Improved Magnus' form approximation of saturation vapor pressure. J. Appl. Meteor., 35, 601-609.

Alduchov, O. A. and R. E. Eskridge, 2002: Determination of Radiosonde Station Elevation from Observational Data. J. App. Meteor., 41, 357-362.

Alejandro, S., R. Frelin, B. Dix, and P. McNicholl, 1992: A compact high repetition rate CO2 coherent Doppler lidar. Preprint, 16th International Laser Radar Conf. (NASA CP-3158), Cambridge MA, AMS, USAF, OSA, NASA, 413-416.

Aleksic', N. M., R. D. Farley, and H. D. Orville, 1989: A numerical cloud model study of the Hallett-Mossop ice multiplication process in strong convection. Atmos. Res., 23, 1-30.

Alexander, G. D. and W. R. Cotton, 1998: The Use of Cloud-Resolving Simulations of Mesoscale Convective Systems to Build a Mesoscale Parameterization Scheme. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 2137-2161.

Alexander, G. D., J. A. Weinman, V. M. Karyampudi, W. S. Olson, and A. C. L. Lee, 1999: The Effect of Assimilating Rain Rates Derived from Satellites and Lightning on Forecasts of the 1993 Superstorm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 1433-1457.

Alexander, G. D., J. A. Weinman, and J. L. Schols, 1998: The Use of Digital Warping of Microwave Integrated Water Vapor Imagery to Improve Forecasts of Marine Extratropical Cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1469-1496.

Alexander, G. D., G. S. Young, and D. V. Ledvina, 1993: Principal component analysis of vertical profiles of Q1 and Q2 in the Tropics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 535-548.

Alexander, M. A., 1990: Simulation of the response of the North Pacific Ocean to the anomalous atmospheric circulation asso-ciated with El Nin˜o. Climate Dyn., 5, 53-65.

Alexander, M. A., 1992: Midlatitude atmosphere-ocean interaction during El Nin˜o. J. Climate, 5, 944-972.

Alexander, M. A., 1992: Midlatitude atmosphere-ocean interaction during El Nin˜o. Part I: The North Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 5, 944-958.

Alexander, M. A., 1992: Midlatitude atmosphere-ocean interaction during El Nin˜o. Part II: The Northern Hemisphere Atmosphere. J. Climate, 5, 959-972.

Alexander, M. A., I. Blade, M. Newman, J. R. Lanzante, N. C. Lau, and J. D. Scott, 2002: The Atmospheric Bridge: The Influence of ENSO Teleconnections on Air-Sea Interaction over the Global Oceans. J. Climate, 15, 2205-2231.

Alexander, M. A. and C. Deser, 1995: A mechanism for the recurrence of wintertime midlatitude SST anomalies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 122-137.

Alexander, M. J. and T. J. Dunkerton, 1999: A Spectral Parameterization of Mean-Flow Forcing due to Breaking Gravity Waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 4167-4182.

Alexander, M. J. and J. R. Holton, 1997: A Model Study of Zonal Forcing in the Equatorial Stratosphere by Convectively Induced Gravity Waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 408-419.

Alexander, M. J., J. R. Holton, and D. R. Durran, 1995: The gravity wave response above deep convection in a squall line simulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2212-2226.

Alexander, R. C. and J. W. Kim, 1976: Diagnostic model study of mixed-layer depths in the summer North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 293-298.

Alexander, R. C. and R. L. Mobley, 1976: Monthly average seasurface temperatures and ice-pack limits on a 17 global grid. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 143-148.

Alexander, S. A. and R. L. Coldwell, 2001: Atomic and Molecular Calculations Using Quasirandom Numbers. J. Comput. Phy., 172, 908-916.

Alexander, W. H., 1902: Hurricanes, especially those of Puerto Rico and St. Kitts. Weather Bureau Bulletin 32, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DC, 79.

Alexandersson, H., 1986: A homogeneity test applied to precipitation data. J. Climatol., 6, 661-675.

Alfonso, A. P., 1986: Severe weather outbreak in Cuba on 8 February 1978. Part 1: Outbreak description and synoptic setting. Cienc. Tierra Espacio, 10, 101-114.

Alfonso, A. P. and L. R. Naranjo, 1996: The 13 March 1993 severe squall line over western Cuba. Wea. Forecasting, 11, 89-102.

Alfonso, A. P. and L. C. rdoba, 1987: The 16 February 1983 mesocyclones in the Havana provinces. Reporte Investigacio ´ n, 16, Instituto de Meteorologi´a.

Alfultis, M. A. and P. Cornillon, 2001: A Characterization of the North Atlantic STMW Layer Climatology Using World Ocean Atlas 1994 Data. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 18, 2021-2037.

Algorithms Group Limited. North, G. R., T. L. Bell, R. F. Cahalan, and F. J. Moeng, 1982: Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 699-706.

AlguÈ, J., 1897: Baguios o Ciclones Filipinos. Estudio TeÛrico Pr·ctico. Imprenta del Observatorio, 307.

AlguÈ, J., 1904: Cyclones of the Far East. Government Printing Office, 283.

Alhamed, A., S. Lakshmivarahan, and D. J. Stensrud, 2002: Cluster Analysis of Multimodel Ensemble Data from SAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 226-256.

Alheit, R. R., A. I. Flossmann, and H. R. Pruppacher, 1990: A theoretical study of the wet removal of atmospheric pollutants. Part IV: The uptake and redistribution of aerosol particles through nucleation and impaction scavenging by growing cloud drops and ice particles. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 870-887.

Alishouse, J., C. S. A. Snyder, J. Vongasthorn, and R. R. Ferraro, 1990: Determination of oceanic total precipitable water from the SSM/I. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 28, 811-816.

Alishouse, J. C., R. R. Ferraro, and J. V. Fiore, 1990: Inference of oceanic rainfall properties from Nimbus 7 SMMR. J. Appl. Meteor., 29, 551-560.

Alishouse, J. C., J. B. Snider, E. R. Westwater, C. T. Swift, C. S. Ruf, S. A. Snyder, J. Vongsathorn, and R. R. Ferraro, 1990: Determination of cloud liquid water content using the SSM/ I. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 28, 817-821.

AlJiboori, M. H., Y. Xu, and Y. Qian, 2002: Local Similarity Relationships in the Urban Boundary Layer. Bound. Layer Meteor., 102, 63-82.

AlJiboori, M. H., X. Yumao, and Q. Yongfu, 2001: Turbulence Characteristics over Complex Terrain in West China. Bound. Layer Meteor., 101, 109-126.

Allan, B. J., G. McFiggans, and G. G. McFadyen, 2000: The nitrate radical in the remote marine boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 24191.

Allan, R. J., 1991: Regional case studies of teleconnections: Physical aspects. 4. Australasia. Teleconnections Linking Worldwide Climate Anomalies, M. H. Glantz, R. W. Katz and N. NichollsEds.

Allan, R. J., J. A. Lindesay, and C. J. C. Reason, 1995: Multi-decadal variability in the climate system over the Indian Ocean region during the austral summer. J. Climate, 8, 1853-1873.

Allan, R. J., N. Nicholls, P. Jones, and I. J. Butterworth, 1991: A further extension of the Tahiti-Darwin SOI, early ENSO events and Darwin pressure. J. Climate, 4, 743-749.

Allan, R. P., A. Slingo, and M. A. Ringer, 2002: Influence of Dynamics on the Changes in Tropical Cloud Radiative Forcing during the 1998 El Nino. J. Climate, 15, 1979-1986.

Allen, D. J., A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and P. D. Guthrie, 1991: Application of a monotonic upstream-biased transport scheme to three-dimensional constituent transport calculations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 2456-2464.

Allen, D. R., J. L. Stanford, L. S. Elson, E. F. Fishbein, L. Froidevaux, and J. W. Waters, 1997: The 4-Day Wave as Observed from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 420-434.

Allen, D. R., J. L. Stanford, M. A. López-Valverde, N. Nakamura, D. J. Lary, A. R. Douglass, M. C. Cerniglia, J. J. Remedios, and F. W. Taylor, 1999: Observations of Middle Atmosphere CO from the UARS ISAMS during the Early Northern Winter 1991/92. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 563-583.

Allen, H. J. and E. W. Perkins, 1952: A study of effects of viscosity on flow over slender inclined bodies of revolution. National Ad-visory Council for Aeronautics Report No. 1048. 13pp. [NTIS N6251048.].

Allen, J. J. and B. Auvity, 2002: Interaction of a vortex ring with a piston vortex. J. Fluid Mech., 465, 353-378.

Allen, J. J. and M. S. Chong, 2000: Vortex formation in front of a piston moving through a cylinder. J. Fluid Mech., 1.

Allen, J. S., 1976: Continental shelf waves and alongshore variations in bottom topography and coastline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 86-4878.

Allen, J. S., 1992: The effects of alongshore variations in bottom topography on coastal upwelling (abstract). Eos. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 73(Suppl), 3-17.

Allen, J. T., 1995: Subtidal and tidal currents in the vicinity of the Iceland Faeroes Front. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12, 567-588.

Allen, J. T., J. F. Read, S. G. Alderson, and H. Desai, 1992: SeaSoar and CTD sections from the Iceland-Faeroes Front and the Faeroe Shetland Channel, August 1990. Institute of Oceanographic Sciences Deacon Laboratory Rep. 295, 124.

Allen, J. T., D. A. Smeed, and A. L. Chadwick, 1994: Eddies and mixing at the Iceland-Faroes Front. Deep-Sea Res., 41, 51-74.

Allen, K. R. and R. I. Joseph, 1989: A canonical statistical theory of oceanic internal waves. J. Fluid Mech., 204, 18-5228.

Allen, L. H. J. and E. R. Lemon, 1972: Net radiation frequency distribution in a corn crop. Bound. Layer Meteor., 3, 246-254.

Allen, M. R., C. T. Mutlow, G. M. C. Blumberg, J. R. Christy, R. T. Mc-Nider, and D. T. L. M, 1994: Global change detection. Nature, 370, 24-25.

Allen, M. R., P. L. Read, and and, 1992: Temperature timeseries? Nature, 355, 6-86.

Allen, M. R., P. L. Read, and L. A. Smith, 1992: Temperature oscillations. Nature, 359, 6-79.

Allen, M. R. and A. W. Robertson, 1996: Distinguishing modulated oscillations from coloured noise in multivariate datasets. Climate Dyn., 12, in press.

Allen, M. R. and L. A. Smith, 1994: Investigating the origins and significance of low-frequency modes of climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 883-886.

Allen, R. J. and A. T. DeGaetano, 2000: A Method of Adjust Long-Term Temperature Extreme Series for Nonclimatic Inhomogeneities. J. Climate, 13, 3680.

Allen, S. J. and R. A. Vincent, 1995: Gravity wave activity in the lower atmosphere: Seasonal and latitudinal variations. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 1327-1350.

Allen, T. and A. R. Brown, 2002: Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Separated Flow over Rough Hills. Bound. Layer Meteor., 102, 177-198.

Allender, J., T. Audunson, S. F. Barstow, S. Bjerken, H. Krogstad, P. Steinbakke, L. Vartdal, L. Borgman, and C. Graham, 1989: The Wadic Project: A comprehensive field evaluation of directional wave instrumentation. Ocean Eng., 16, 505-536.

Allender, J. H., 1979: Model and observed circulation throughout the annual temperature cycle of Lake Michigan. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9, 573-579.

Allerup, P., H. Madsen, and J. Riis, 1982: Methods for calculating areal precipitation. Nord. Hydrol., 13, 263-278.

Alley, R. B., E. S. Saltzman, K. M. Cuffey, and J. J. Fitzpatrick, 1990: Summertime formation of depth hoar in central Greenland. Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 2393-2396.

Alley, W. M., 1984: The Palmer drought severity index: Limitations and assumptions. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23, 1100-1109.

Alley, W. M., 1985: The Palmer drought severity index as a measure of hydrological drought. Water Resour. Bull., 21, 105-114.

alling, R. C. and S. W. Brazell, 1988: High resolution surface temperature patterns in a complex urban terrain. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., 54(9), 1289-1293.

Allison, M., A. D. D. Genio, and W. Zhou, 1994: Zero potential vorticity envelopes for the zonal-mean velocity of the Venus/ Titan atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 694-702.

Alliss, R., S. Raman, and S. W. Chang, 1992: Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I) observations of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 2723-2737.

Alliss, R. J. and and, 1995: Cloudiness and its relationship to saturation pressure differences during a developing East Coast winter storm. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 2367-2387.

Alliss, R. J. and and, 1995: Diurnal variations in cloudiness over the Gulf Stream locale. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 1578-1594.

Alliss, R. J. and S. Raman, 1995: Quantitative estimates of cloud-iness over the Gulf Stream locale using GOES VAS observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 500-510.

Alliss, R. J., G. D. Sandlin, S. W. Chang, and S. Raman, 1993: Application of SSM/ I data in the analysis of Hurricane Florence (1988). J. Appl. Meteor., 32, 1581-1591.

Allmen, M. C. and W. P. Kegelmeyer, 1994: The computation of cloud base height from paired whole-sky imaging cameras. Tech. Note SAND94-8223, Sandia National Laboratories Livermore.

AlMohamad, A., S. Aghabi, and C. Weiss, 2002: A portable meteorological station plus nuclear radiation monitoring system using a BASIC-8052 micro-controller. Meteor. App., 9, 1-8.

Almond, T. and J. Clarke, 1983: Consideration of the usefulness of microwave propagation prediction methods on air-to-ground paths. IEE Proc. (Part F), 130, 649-656.

Alms, G. R., A. K. Burnham, and W. H. Flygare, 1975: Measurement of the dispersion in polarizability anisotropies. J. Chem. Phys., 63, 3321-3326.

AlMubaiyedh, U. A., R. Sureshkumar, and B. Khomami, 2002: The effect of viscous heating on the stability of Taylor-Couette flow. J. Fluid Mech., 462, 111-132.

Aloyan, A. E., D. L. lordanov, and V. V. Penenko, 1981: Parameterization of a surface layer with variable height, 27-34 (translated by Allerton, New York) pp.

Alper, J., 1993: The pipeline is leaking women all the way along. Science, 260, 409-411.

Alpert, B., L. Greengard, and T. Hagstrom, 2002: Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for the Time-Dependent Wave Equation. J. Comp. Phy., 180, 270-296.

Alpert, L., 1945: The intertropical convergence zone of the eastern Pacific region. I. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 26, 426-432.

Alpert, P., 1981: Implicit filtering in conjunction with explicit filtering. J. Comput. Phys. 44,212-219.

Alpert, P., 1986: Mesoscale indexing of the distribution of orographic precipitation over high mountains. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 532-545.

Alpert, P. and and, 1989: A physical model to complement rainfall normals over complex terrain. J. Hydrol., 110, 51-62.

Alpert, P. and and, 1991: Role of detailed wind-topography interaction in orographic rainfall. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 117B, 42-1427.

Alpert, P., A. Cohen, E. Doron, and J. Neumann, 1982: A model simulation of the summer circulation from the Eastern Mediterranean past Lake Kinneret in the Jordan Valley. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 994-1006.

Alpert, P. and B. Getenio, 1988: One-level diagnostic modeling of mesoscale surface winds in complex terrain. Part I: Comparison with three-dimensional modeling in Israel. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 2025-2046.

Alpert, P. and B. Getenio, 1988: One-level diagnostic modeling of mesoscale surface winds in complex terrain. Part II: Applicability of shortrange forecasting. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 2047-2061.

Alpert, P., S. O. Krichak, M. Tsidulko, H. Shafir, and J. H. Joseph, 2002: A Dust Prediction System with TOMS Initialization. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 2335-2345.

Alpert, P., B. U. Neeman, and Y. Shay-El, 1990: Climatological analysis of Mediterranean cyclones using ECMWF data. Tellus, 42A, 65-77.

Alpert, P. and J. Neumann, 1983: A simulation of a Lake Michigan winter land breeze on the 7th of November 1978. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 1873-1881.

Alpert, P. and J. Neumann, 1983: A simulation of lake Michigan's winter breeze on 7 November 1978. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 187-31881.

Alpert, P. and J. Neumann, 1984: On the enhanced smoothing over topography in some mesometeorological models. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 30, 293-312.

Alpert, P. and H. Shafir, 1989: Meso g-scale distribution of orographic precipitation: Numerical study and comparison with precipitation derived from radar measurements. J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 1105-1117.

Alpert, P. and Y. Shay-El, 1993: The paradox of the winter net moisture sink over the Arabian-Iraqi desert. Ann. Geophys., 11, 190-194.

Alpert, P., M. Tsidulko, S. Krichak, and U. Stein, 1996: A multi-stage evolution of an ALPEX cyclone. Tellus, 48A, in press.

Alpert, P., M. Tsidulko, and U. Stein, 1995: Can sensitivity studies yield absolute comparisons for the effects of several processes? J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 597-601.

AlRawahi, N. and G. Tryggvason, 2002: Numerical Simulation of Dendritic Solidification with Convection: Two-Dimensional Geometry. J. Comp. Phy., 180, 471-496.

Altaratz, O., Z. Levin, and Y. Yair, 2001: Winter Thunderstorms in Israel: A Study with Lightning Location Systems and Weather Radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 1259-1266.

Althausen, D., D. Muller, and S. Zorner, 2000: Scanning 6-Wavelength 11-Channel Aerosol Lidar. J. Atmos. Ocean Tech., 17, 1469.

Alvarez, A., J. Tintore, G. Holloway, M. Eby, and J. M. Beckers, 1994: Effect of topographic stress on the circulation in the Western Mediterranean. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 16053-16064.

Amans, V. and B. Marcorelles, 1993: AMI unavailability periods since launch. DEX/ EM/ 92-10-002. European Space Agency, 10.

Amar, M. B. and J. R. Rice, 2002: Exact results with the J-integral applied to free-boundary flows. J. Fluid Mech., 461, 321-342.

Amara, K. and J. Hegseth, 2002: Convection in a spherical capacitor. J. Fluid Mech., 450, 297-316.

Amaratunga, S. R., O. R. Tutty, and G. T. Roberts, 2000: High-speed flow with discontinuous surface catalysis. J. Fluid Mech., 325.

Amato, I., 1992: Profile of a field: Chemistry. Science, 255, 1372-1373.

Amayenc, P., J. P. Diguet, M. Marzoug, and T. Tani, 1996: A class of singleand dual-frequency algorithms for rainrate profiling from a spaceborne radar. Part II: Tests from airborne radar measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13, 142-164.

Amayenc, P., J. Testud, and M. Marzoug, 1993: Proposal for a spaceborne rain radar with Doppler capability. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10, 262-276.

Amayenc, P. and E. Thouvenot, 1992: Study of the rain radar of the BEST mission. Communications to Symposium on active sensors and non-synchoneous missions dedicated to GEWEX, June 1992, Jouyen-Josas, France. Tech. Note DT/ CRPE/ 1227, 34.

Amayenc, P., E. Thouvenot, and J. Testud, 1993: Analysis of cross-beam resolution effects in rainfall rate profile retrieval from a spaceborne radar. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 31(2), 417-425.

Ambaum, M., 1997: Isentropic Formation of the Tropopause. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 555-568.

Ambaum, M. H. P. and B. J. Hoskins, 2002: The NAO Troposphere-Stratosphere Connection. J. Climate, 15, 1969-1978.

Ambaum, M. H. P., B. J. Hoskins, and D. B. Stephenson, 2001: Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation? J. Climate, 14, 3495-3507.

Ambrizzi, T. and B. J. Hoskins, 1996: Rossby wave propagation in a baroclinic atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., in press.

Ambrizzi, T., B. J. Hoskins, and H.-H. Hsu, 1995: Rossby wave propagation and teleconnection patterns in the Austral winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 3661-3672.

Amen, R. and T. Maxworthy, 1980: The gravitational collapse of a mixed region into a linearly stratified fluid. J. Fluid Mech., 96, 65-80.

Amer. Meteor. Soc. White, R. M. and B. Saltzman, 1956: On conversions between potential and kinetic energy in the atmosphere. Tellus, 8, 357-363.

Amir, O. and G. Dagan, 2002: Uniform steady free-surface flow in heterogeneous porous formations. J. Fluid Mech., 454, 327-344.

Amiro, B. D. and P. A. Davis, 1988: Statistics of atmospheric turbulence within a natural black spruce forest canopy. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 44, 267-283.

Amiroudine, S., P. Bontoux, P. Larroude, B. Gilly, and B. Zappoli, 2001: Direct numerical simulation of instabilities in a two-dimensional near-critical fluid layer heated from below. J. Fluid Mech., 442, 119-140.

Amitai, E., 2000: Systemic Variation of Observed Radar Reflectivity-Rainfall Rate Relations in the Tropics. J. App. Meteor., 39, 2198.

Amokrane, H. and B. Caussade, 1999: Gas Absorption into a Moving Spheroidal Water Drop. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1808-1829.

Amos, A. F., A. L. Gordon, and E. D. Schneider, 1971: Water masses and circulation patterns in the region of the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge. Deep-Sea Res., 18, 145-165.

AMS, 1991: CaPE experiment proceeds in Florida. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72, 1-287.

AMS, 1993: Policy statement: Hurricane detection, tracking, and forecasting. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 1377-1380.

AMS, A. M. S., 1992: Planned and inadvertent weather modification: A policy statement of the American Meteorological Society as adopted by the Council on 5 January 1992. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73, 331-337.

(AMS), A. M. S., 1979: Statement on Weather Forecasting. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 64, 1453.

(AMS), A. M. S., 1981: Air Quality Modeling and the Clean Air Act Recommendation to EPA on Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory ApplicationPB83-106237.

(AMS), A. M. S., 1983: Policy statement of the American Meteorological Society on weather forecasting. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 64, 1385-1387.

An, S. I. and F. F. Jin, 2001: Collective Role of Thermocline and Zonal Advective Feedbacks in the ENSO Mode. J. Climate, 14, 3421-3432.

Anagnostou, E. N., C. A. Morales, and T. Dinku, 2001: The Use of TRMM Precipitation Radar Observations in Determining Ground Radar Calibration Biases. J. Atmos. Ocean Tech., 18, 616.

Ananthakrishnan, R. and R. N. Keshvamurthy, 1974: Some new features of the vertical distribution of temperature and humidity over Bombay during the southwest monsoon season. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India, 14(2), 732-742.

Anantharkrishnan, R. and M. K. Soman, 1988: The onset of the southwest monsoon over Kerala: 1901-1980. J. Climatol., 8, 283-296.

Anati, D. A., 1971: On the mechanism of the deep mixed layer formation during MEDOC'69. Cah. Oceanogr., 23, 427-443.

Anati, D. A. and H. Stommel, 1970: The initial phase of deep water formation in the Northwest Mediterranean during MEDOC 69 on the basis of observations made by ''ATLANTIS II'' January 25-February 12, 1969. Can. Oceanogr., 22(4 ), 343-351.

Ancellet, G., R. T. Menzies, and W. B. Grant, 1989: Atmospheric velocity spectral width measurements using the statistical distribution of pulsed CO2 lidar return signal intensities. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6, 50-58.

Anctil, F., M. A. Donelan, W. M. Drennan, and H. C. Graber, 1994: Eddy correlation measurements of air-sea fluxes from a Discus buoy. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 11, 1144-1150.

Anctil, F., M. A. Donelan, G. Z. Forristall, K. E. Steele, and Y. Ouellet, 1993: Deep-water field evaluation of the NDBC-SWADE 3-m dis-cus directional buoy. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10, 97-112.

Anderberg, M. R., 1973: Cluster Analysis for Applications. Academic Press, 359.

Andersen, O. B., P. L. Woodworth, and R. A. Flather, 1995: Intercomparison of recent ocean tide models. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 25261-25282.

Andersen, O. J., 1981: The katabatic wind field and nocturnal inversions in valleys: A 2-dimensional model.

Anderson, B. D. O. and J. B. Moore, 1979: Optimal Filtering. PrenticeHall, 357.

Anderson, B. T., 2002: Regional Simulation of Intraseasonal Variations in the Summertime Hydrologic Cycle over the Southwestern United States. J. Climate, 15, 2282-2300.

Anderson, B. T., J. O. Roads, and S.-C. Chen, 2000: Large-scale forcing of summertime monsoon surges over the Gulf of California and the southwestern United States. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 24455.

Anderson, B. T., J. O. Roads, and H.-M. H. Juang, 2001: Model dynamics of summertime low-level jets over northwestern Mexico. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 3401.

Anderson, C. J. and R. W. Arritt, 1998: Mesoscale Convective Complexes and Persistent Elongated Convective Systems over the United States during 1992 and 1993. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 578-599.

Anderson, C. J. and R. W. Arritt, 2001: Mesoscale Convective Systems over the United States during the 1997-98 El Nino. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 2443-2457.

Anderson, D. and R. Corry, 1985: Seasonal transport variations in the Florida Straits: A model study. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 77-3786.

Anderson, D., A. Hollingsworth, S. Uppala, and P. Woiceshyn, 1987: A study of the feasibility of using sea and wind information from the ERS-1 satellite. Part 1: Wind scatterometer data, 121 pp.

Anderson, D., A. Hollingsworth, S. Uppala, and P. Woiceshyn, 1991: A study of the use of scatterometer data in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Operational Analysis-Forecast model I. Quality control and validation. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 2619-2634.

Anderson, D. and P. B. Rowlands, 1976: The role of inertia-gravity waves in the response of a tropical ocean to the incidence of an equatorial Kelvin wave on a meridional boundary. J. Mar. Res., 34, 295-312.

Anderson, D. A., J. C. Tannehill, and R. C. Pletcher, 1984: Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer. McGraw Hill, 599 pp.

Anderson, D. A., J. C. Tannehill, and R. H. Pletcher, 1984: Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill, 599.

Anderson, D. E., S. B. Verma, R. J. Clement, D. D. Baldocchi, and D. R. Matt, 1986: Turbulence spectra of CO2, water vapor, temperature and velocity over a deciduous forest. Agric. For. Meteor., 38, 81-99.

Anderson, D. L. T. and D. J. Carrington, 1993: Modeling interannual variability in the Indian Ocean using momentum fluxes from the operational weather analyses of the United Kingdom meteorological office and European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. J. Geophys. Res., 98(C7), 12483-12499.

Anderson, D. L. T. and R. A. Corry, 1985: Seasonal transport variations in the Florida Straits: A model study. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 773-786.

Anderson, D. L. T. and A. E. Gill, 1975: Spin-up of a stratified ocean with applications to upwelling. Deep-Sea Res., 22, 583-596.

Anderson, D. L. T. and P. D. Killworth, 1977: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with topography. Deep-Sea Res., 24, 709-732.

Anderson, D. L. T. and P. D. Killworth, 1979: Nonlinear propagation of long Rossby waves. Deep-Sea Res., 26, 1033-1049.

Anderson, D. L. T. and J. P. McCreary, 1985: Slowly propagating disturbances in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 615-629.

Anderson, E. A., 1968: Development and testing of snow pack energy balance equations. Water Resour. Res., 4, 19-37.

Anderson, E. A., 1973: National Weather Service River Forecast systemSnow accumulation and ablation model. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS Hydro-17. 217.

Anderson, E. A., 1976: A point energy balance model of a snow cover. Office of Hydrology, National Weather Service. NOAA Tech. Rep. NWS 19, 150.

Anderson, E. J., W. Quinn, and M. E. DeMont, 2001: Hydrodynamics of locomotion in the squid Loligo pealei. J. Fluid Mech., 436, 249-266.

Anderson, G. E., 1971: Mesoscale influences on wind fields. J. Appl. Meteor., 10, 377-386.

Anderson, G. E. and J. Willebrand, 1992: Recent advances in modeling the ocean circulation and its effect on climate. Rep. Prog. Phys., 55, 1-37.

Anderson, J. A., K. K. Droegemeier, and R. B. Wilhelmson, 1985: Simulation of the thunderstorm subcloud environment. Preprint, 14th Conference on Severe Local Storms, Amer. Meteor. Soc.

Anderson, J. A. and R. D. Rosen, 1983: The latitude-height structure of 40-50 day variations in atmospheric angular momentum. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 1584-1591.

Anderson, J. L., 1991: The robustness of barotropic unstable modes in a zonally varying atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 2393-2410.

Anderson, J. L., 1993: The climatology of blocking in a numerical forecast model. J. Climate, 6, 1041-1056.

Anderson, J. L., 1995: A simulation of atmospheric blocking with a forced barotropic model. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2593-2608.

Anderson, J. L., 1996: Selection of initial conditions for ensemble forecasts in a simple perfect model framework. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 22-36.

Anderson, J. L., 1997: The Impact of Dynamical Constraints on the Selection of Initial Conditions for Ensemble Predictions: Low-Order Perfect Model Results. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2969-2983.

Anderson, J. L., 2001: An Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter for Data Assimilation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 2884-2903.

Anderson, J. L. and S. L. Anderson, 1999: A Monte Carlo Implementation of the Nonlinear Filtering Problem to Produce Ensemble Assimilations and Forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 2741-2758.

Anderson, J. L. and W. F. Stern, 1996: Evaluating the predictive utility of ensemble forecasts in a perfect model setting. J. Climate, in press.

Anderson, J. R., 1991: High performance velocity estimators for co-herent laser radars. Sixth Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, Snowmass-at-Aspen, CO, Optical Society of America, 216-218.

Anderson, J. R., E. E. Hardy, J. T. Roach, and R. E. Witmer, 1976: A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 28 pp.

Anderson, J. R., L. G. Orf, and J. M. Straka, 1992: A 3-D model system for simulating thunderstorm microburst outflows. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 49, 125-131.

Anderson, J. R. and R. D. Rosen, 1983: The latitude-height structure of 40-50 day variations in atmospheric angular momentum. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 1584-1591.

Anderson, J. R. and D. Stevens, 1987: The presence of linear wavelike modes in a zonally symmetric model of the tropical atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 2115-2127.

Anderson, K. D., 2000: Determination of Water Level and Tides Using Interferometric Observations of GPS Signals. J. Atmos. Ocean Tech., 17, 1118.

Anderson, R. J., 1993: A study of wind stress and heat flux over the open ocean by the inertial dissipation method. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 2153-2161.

Anderson, R. J. and S. D. Smith, 1981: Evaporation coefficient for the sea surface from eddy flux measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 86, 449-456.

Anderson, R. K., et al., 1974: Application of Meteorological Satellite Data in Analysis and Forecasting.NESC 51.

Anderson, S. A. and R. A. Weller, 1994: Moored observations of the variability and structure of temperature, salinity and velocity near the surface of the western Pacific warm pool during TOGA COARE. Summary Report of the TOGA COARE Int. Data Workshop Toulouse France UCAR. 169.

Anderson, S. F., 1979: Effects of New York City on the Horizontal and Vertical Structure of Sea Breeze Fronts, Vol. II. Observations of Sea Breeze Frontal Slopes and Vertical Velocities over an Urban Area.

Anderson, S. P., 2001: On the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Equatorial Front. J. Climate, 14, 1688.

Anderson, S. P., R. A. Weller, and R. Lukas, 1995: Surface forcing and the mixed layer in the warm pool: Observations and 1-D.

Anderson, T. L., R. J. Charlson, W. H. White, and P. H. McMurry, 1994: Comment on ''Light scattering and cloud condensation nucleus activity of sulfate aerosol measured over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 99D, 25947-25949.

Anderson, T. L. and Coauthors, 1996: Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, three-wavelength, total scatter / backscatter nephe-lometer. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13, 967-986.

Anderson, T. L., S. J. Masonis, and M. J. Rood, 2000: In situ measurement of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio at a polluted continental site. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 26907.

Anderson, T. W., 1958: An Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis. John Wiley and Sons, 374.

Anderson, T. W. and D. A. Darling, 1954: A test of goodness of fit. Amer. Stat. Assoc. J., 49, 765-769.

Anderson, W. O. G. J., J. E. A. Selby, and J. A. Olseth, 1994: Cloud optical properties at Bergen (Norway) based on the analysis of longterm solar irradiance records. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 50, 73-82.

Andersson, E., J. Pailleux, J.-N. The´paut, J. R. Eyre, A. P. McNally, G. A. Kelly, and P. Courtier, 1994: Use of cloudcleared radiances in three/ four-dimensional variational data assimilation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 627-653.

Andersson, H. C., 2002: Influence of long-term regional and large-scale atmospheric circulation on the Baltic sea level. Tellus, 54, 75-88.

Andersson, T. and N. Gustafsson, 1994: Coast of departure and coast of arrival: Two important concepts for the formation and structure of convective snowbands over seas and lakes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1036-1049.

Andersson-Sko¨ ld, Y., P. Grennfelt, and K. Pleijel, 1992: Photochemical ozone creation potentials: A study of different concepts. J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc., 42, 1152-1158.

Andra, D. L., E. M. Quoetone, and W. F. Bunting, 2002: Warning Decision Making: The Relative Roles of Conceptual Models, Technology, Strategy, and Forecaster Expertise on 3 May 1999. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 559-566.

Andrade, E. R. and W. D. Sellers, 1988: El Nin˜o and its effect on precipitation in Arizona and western New Mexico. Int. J. Climatol., 8, 403-410.

Andre, J. C., P. Bougeault, J.-F. Mahfouf, P. Mascart, J. Noilhan, and J.-. Pinty, 1989: Impact of forests on mesoscale meteorology. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 324, 407-422.

Andre, J. C. and Collaborators, 1988: HAPEX-MOBILHY: First results from the Special Observing Period. Ann. Geophys., 6, 477-492.

Andre, J. C., G. DeMoor, P. Lacarcere, G. Therry, and R. d. Vachat, 1978: Modeling the 24-hour evolution of the mean and turbulent structures of the planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1862-1883.

Andre, J. C., J. P. Goutorbe, and A. Perier, 1986: HAPEX-MOBILHY: A hydrological atmospheric experiment for the study of water budget and evaporation flux at the climate scale. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 67, 138-144.

Andre, J. C. and P. Lacarrere, 1985: Mean and turbulent structures of the oceanic surface layer as determined from one-dimensional thirdorder simulations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 121-132.

Andre, J. C. and M. LeSieur, 1977: Influence of helicity on the evolution of isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds number. J. Fluid Mech., 81, 187-207.

Andre, J. C. and L. Mahrt, 1982: The nocturnal surface inversion and influence of clean-air radiative cooling. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 864-878.

Andre, J.-C., P. Bougeault, and J.-P. Goutorbe, 1986: HAPEX-MOBILHY: A hydrologic atmospheric experiment for the study of water and evaporation flux at the climatic scale. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 67, 238-244.

Andre´, J.-C., P. Bougeault, and J.-P. Goutorbe, 1990: Regional estimates of heat and evaporation fluxes over nonhomogeneous terrain. examples from the HAPexMOBILHY Programme. Boundary-Layer Meteor., 50, 77-108.

Andre´, J.-C., P. Bougeault, J.-F. Mahfouf, P. Mascart, J. Noilhan, and J.-P. Pinty, 1989: Impact of forests on mesoscale meteorology. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 324, 407-422.

Andre´, J.-C. and Coauthors, 1988: Evaporation over landsurfaces: First results from HapexMobilhy special observing period. Ann. Geophys., B6, 477-492.

Andre´, J.-C., J. P. Goutorbe, T. Schmugge, and A. Perrier, 1989: HAPexMOBILHY: Results from a large-scale field experiment. Remote Sensing and Large-Scale Global Processes. A. RangoEd., International Association of Hydrological Sciences, 13-20.

Andre´, J.-C., J.-P. Goutorbe, and A. Perrier, 1986: HAPex MOBILHY: A hydrologic atmospheric experiment for the study of water budget and evaporation flux at the climatic scale. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 67, 138-144.

Andre´n, A., 1989: Application of the MIUU meso-g-scale model to the O ¨ resund meteorological databank. Rep. 87, Department of Meteorology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, 48.

Andre´n, A., 1990: A mesoscale plume dispersion model: Prelimi-nary evaluation in a heterogeneous area. Atmos. Environ., 24A, 883-896.

Andre´n, A., 1990: Evaluation of a turbulence closure scheme suitable for air-pollution applications. J. Appl. Meteor., 29, 224-239.

Andre´n, A., 1991: A TKE-dissipation model for the atmospheric boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 56, 207-221.

Andreae, M. O. and H. Raemdonck, 1983: Dimethyl sulfide in the surface ocean and the marine atmosphere: A global view. Science, 221, 7-74.

Andreas, E. L., 1980: Estimation of heat and mass fluxes over Arctic leads. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 2057-2063.

Andreas, E. L., 1987: Spectral measurements in a disturbed boundary layer over snow. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1912-1939.

Andreas, E. L., 1988: Estimating over snow and sea ice from meteorolog2 Cn ical data. J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, 5, 481-495.

Andreas, E. L., 1989: Comments on ''A physical bound on the Bowen ratio. J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 1252-1254.

Andreas, E. L., 1989: Twowavelength method of measuring path-averaged turbulent surface heat fluxes. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6, 280-292.

Andreas, E. L. and K. J. Claffey, 1995: Air-ice drag coefficients in the Western Weddell Sea. 1: Values deduced from profile measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 4821-4831.

Andreas, E. L., K. J. Claffey, and A. P. Makshtas, 2000: Low-Level Atmospheric Jets and Inversions over the Western Weddell Sea. Bound. Lay. Meteor., 97, 459.

Andreas, E. L., K. J. Claffey, A. P. Makshtas, and B. V. Ivanov, 1992: Atmospheric sciences on Ice Station Weddell. Antarct. J. U. S., 27(5), 115-117.

Andreas, E. L. and Coauthors, 1979: The turbulent heat flux from Arctic leads. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 17, 57-91.

Andreas, E. L. and B. B. Hicks, 2002: Comments on "Critical Test of the Validity of Monin-Obukhov Similarity during Convective Conditions". J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 2605-2607.

Andreas, E. L., M. W. Miles, R. G. Barry, and R. C. Schell, 1990: Lidarderived particle concentration in plumes from Arctic leads. Ann. Glaciol., 14, 9-12.

Andreassen, O., B. N. Andersen, and C. E. Wasberg, 1992: Gravity wave and convection interaction in the solar interior. Astr. Ap., 257, 763-769.

Andreassen, O., I. Lie, and C. E. Wasberg, 1994: The spectral viscosity method applied to simulation of waves in a stratified atmosphere. J. Comput. Phys., 110, 257-273.

Andreassen, O., C. E. Wasberg, D. C. Fritts, and J. R. Isler, 1994: Gravity wave breaking in two and three dimensions. 1. Model description and comparison of two-dimensional evolutions. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 8095-8108.

Andren, A., 1990: Evaluation of a turbulence closure scheme suitable for air-pollution applications. J. Appl. Meteor., 29, 224-239.

Andren, A., 1991: A TKE-dissipation model for the atmospheric boundary layer. Bound-Layer Meteor., 56, 207-221.

Andren, A., A. R. Brown, J. Graf, P. J. Mason, C.-H. Moeng, F. T. M. Nieuwstadt, and U. Schumann, 1994: Large-eddy simulation of a neutrally stratified boundary layer: A comparison of four computer codes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 1457-1484.

Andreopoulos, Y. and A. Honkan, 2001: An experimental study of the dissipative and vortical motion in turbulent boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech., 439, 131-164.

Andreotti, B., S. Douady, and Y. Couder, 2001: An experiment on two aspects of the interaction between strain and vorticity. J. Fluid Mech., 444, 151-174.

Andrews, A. E., K. A. Boering, S. C. Wofsy, B. C. Daube, D. B. Jones, S. Alex, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, and S. E. Strahan, 2001: Empirical age spectra for the midlatitude lower stratosphere from in situ observations of CO2: Quantitative evidence for a subtropical "barrier" to horizontal transport (Paper 2000JD900703). J. Geophy. Res., 106, 10,257-10,274.

Andrews, D. G., 1981: A note on potential energy density in a stratified compressible fluid. J. Fluid Mech., 107, 227-236.

Andrews, D. G., 1983: A finite-amplitude Eliassen-Palm theo-rem in isentropic coordinates. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 187-71883.

Andrews, D. G., 1984: On the stability of forced non-zonal flows. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 110, 657-662.

Andrews, D. G., 1987: On the interpretation of the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113, 323-338.

Andrews, D. G., 1990: On the forcing of time-mean flows by transient small-amplitude eddies. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1837-1844.

Andrews, D. G. and and, 1978: An exact theory for nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian-mean flow. J. Fluid Mech., 89, 609-646.

Andrews, D. G. and and, 1978: Generalized Eliassen-Palm and CharneyDrazin theorems for waves on axisymmetric mean flows in compressible atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 175-185.

Andrews, D. G., C. B. Leovy, and J. R. Holton, 1987: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp.

Andrews, D. G., J. D. Mahlman, and R. W. Sinclair, 1983: EliassenPalm diagnostics of wave-mean flow interaction in the GFDL ''SKYHI'' general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2768- 2-784.

Andrews, D. G. and M. E. McIntyre, 1976: Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: The generalized Eliassen-Palm relation and the zonal mean acceleration. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2031-2048.

Andrews, D. G. and M. E. McIntyre, 1978: On wave action and its relatives. J. Fluid Mech., 89, 647-664.

Andrews, D. G. and M. E. McIntyre, 1978: An exact theory of nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian-mean flow. J. Fluid Mech., 89, 609-646.

Andrews, J. C., 1980: Observations of the Tasman front. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10, 1854-1869.

Andrews, J. C. and L. Bode, 1988: The tides of the central Great Barrier Reef. Contin. Shelf Res., 8, 1057-1085.

Andrews, M. D. and C. L. Trump, 1994: TOAD: A surface towed acoustic Doppler and CTD system (abstract). Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 75, p. -23.

Andrews, P. L. and R. S. Bell, 1998: Optimizing the United Kingdom Meteorological Office Data Assimilation for ERS-1 Scatterometer Winds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 736-746.

Andreyev, S. D. and L. S. Ivlev, 1980: Infrared radiation absorption by various atmospheric aerosol fractions. Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 16, 663-669.

Andrieu, C., D. A. Beysens, V. S. Nikolayev, and Y. Pomeau, 2002: Coalescence of sessile drops. J. Fluid Mech., 453, 427-438.

Andronache, C. W., W. L. Chameides, M. O. Rodgers, P. Zimmermann, and J. Greenberg, 1994: Vertical distribution of isoprene in the lower boundary layer of the rural and urban southern United States. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 16989-17000.

Andronov, A. A., A. A. Vitt, and S. E. Chaikin, 1966: Theory of Oscillators. Pergamon Press, 815.

Andsager, K., K. V. Beard, and N. F. Laird, 1999: Laboratory Measurements of Axis Ratios for Large Raindrops. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2673-2683.

Anfossi, D., G. Brusasca, and G. Tinarelli, 1990: Simulation of Atmospheric diffusion in low windspeed meandering conditions by a Monte Carlo dispersion model. Il. Nuovo Cimento, 13C, 995-1006.

Angel, J. R., W. E. Easterling, and S. W. Kirtsch, 1993: Towards defining appropriate averaging periods for climate normals. Climatol. Bull., 27, 29-44.

Angel, J. R. and S. A. Isard, 1997: An Observational Study of the Influence of the Great Lakes on the Speed and Intensity of Passing Cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2228-2237.

Angeles. Luria, M., H. Almog, and M. Peleg, 1984: Transport and transformation of air pollutants from Israel's coastal area. Atmos. Environ., 18, 2215-2221.

Angell, J. K., 1981: Comparison of variations in atmospheric quantities with sea surface temperature variations in the equatorial eastern Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 230-242.

Angell, J. K., 1988: Impact of El Nin˜ o on the delineation of tropospheric cooling due to volcanic eruptions. J. Geophys. Res., 93(D4), 3697-3704.

Angell, J. K., 1988: Variations and trends in tropospheric and stratospheric global temperature, 1958-87. J. Climate, 1, 1296-1313.

Angell, J. K., 1990: Variation in global tropospheric temperature after adjustment for the El Niño influence, 1958-1989. Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 1097-1110.

Angell, J. K. and and, 1984: Comparison of tropospheric temperatures fol-lowing Agung and El Chicho´ n volcanic eruptions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 1457-1463.

Angell, J. K. and and, 1985: Surface temperature changes following the six major volcanic episodes between 1780 and 1980. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 24, 937-951.

Angell, J. K., W. P. Elliott, and M. E. Smith, 1984: Tropospheric humidity variations at Brownsville, Texas and Great Falls, Montana, 1958-80. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 9, 1286-1295.

Angell, J. K. and J. Korshover, 1983: Global temperature variations in the troposphere and stratosphere, 1958-1982. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 901-921.

Angevine, W. M., H. K. Baltink, and F. C. Bosveld, 2001: Observations of the Morning Transition of the Convective Boundary Layer. Bound. Layer Meteor., 101, 209-227.

Angevine, W. M. and W. L. Ecklund, 1994: Errors in radio acoustic sounding of temperature. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 11, 83-7842.

Angevine, W. M. and K. Mitchell, 2001: Evaluation of the NCEP Mesoscale Eta Model Convective Boundary Layer for Air Quality Applications. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 2761-2775.

Anguita, F., A. F. Farelo, V. Lopez, C. Mas, M. J. MunozEspadas, A. Marquez, and J. Ruiz, 2001: Tharsis dome, Mars: New evidence for Noachian-Hesperian thick-skin and Amazonian thin-skin tectonics (Paper 2000JE001246). J. Geophy. Res., 106, 7577-7590.

Anikin, P. P. and L. V. Kravets, 1992: Relation between the optical characteristics and the temperature and geometric thickness of cirrus clouds. Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 27, 668-672.

Anis, A. and and, 1995: Surface waveturbulence interactions: Scaling e(z ) near the sea surface. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 202-52045.

Anis, A. and J. Moum, 1994: Prescriptions for heat flux and entrainment rates in the upper ocean during convection. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2142-2155.

Anis, A. and J. N. Moum, 1992: The superadiabatic surface layer of the ocean during convection. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 122-11227.

Anisimov, O. and L. Fukshansky, 1992: Stochastic radiation in macroheterogeneous random optical media. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 48, 169-186.

Anistratov, D. Y. and E. W. Larsen, 2001: Nonlinear and Linear alpha-Weighted Methods for Particle Transport Problems. J. Comput. Phy., 173, 664-684.

Annamalai, H. and J. M. Slingo, 2001: Active break cycles: diagnosis of the intraseasonal variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon. Climate Dynamics, 18, 85-102.

Annamalai, H., J. M. Slingo, K. R. Sperber, and K. Hodges, 1999: The Mean Evolution and Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon: Comparison of ECMWF and NCEP-NCAR Reanalyses. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 1157-1186.

Annenkov, S. Y. and V. I. Shrira, 1992: On zonal waveguides for Rossby waves in the World Ocean. Oceanology, 32, 1-5.

Annenkov, S. Y. and V. I. Shrira, 2001: Numerical modelling of water-wave evolution based on the Zakharov equation. J. Fluid Mech., 449, 341-372.

Anquetin, S., C. Guibaud, and J.-P. Chollet, 1998: The formation and destruction of inversion layers within a deep valley. J. App. Meteor., 37, 1547-1560.

Ansmann, A., I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, E. o. t. P. A. R. L. O. o. P. O. Depth, E. Radius, and Mass, 1997: and Surface Area over Central Europe at 53.4°N. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 2630-2641.

Ansmann, A., U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, 1992: Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar. Appl. Opt., 31, 7113-7131.

Antarctic Model. J. P. D. S. E. Best, M. E. M., 1985: Do Rossby-wave critical layers absorb, reflect, or over-reflect? J. Fluid Mech., 161, 449-492.

Antarctic Model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., s. K. and P. D., 1979: On the propagation of stable baroclinic Rossby waves through a mean shear flow. Deep-Sea Res., 26A, 998-1031.

Anthes, R., 1974: Data assimilation and initialization of hurricane prediction models. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 702-718.

Anthes, R. A., 1970: Numerical experiments with a two-dimensional horizontal variable grid. Mon. Wea. Rev., 98, 810-822.

Anthes, R. A., 1972: The development of asymmetries in a three-dimensional numerical model of the tropical cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 461-476.

Anthes, R. A., 1974: Data assimilation and initialization of hurricane prediction models. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 702-719.

Anthes, R. A., 1974: The dynamics and energetic of mature tropical cyclones. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 12, 495-522.

Anthes, R. A., 1976: Numerical prediction of severe storms-certainty, possibility, or dream? Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 57, 423-430.

Anthes, R. A., 1977: A cumulus parameterization scheme utilizing a one-dimensional cloud model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 270286.

Anthes, R. A., 1978: The height of the planetary boundary layer and the production of circulation in a sea breeze model. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1231-1239.

Anthes, R. A., 1982: The Use of Satellite Pictures in Tropical Cyclones: Their Evolution, Structure and Effects. American Meteorological Society, 208 pp.

Anthes, R. A., 1982: Tropical Cyclones, Their Evolution, Structure and Effect. AMS monograph, Boston.

Anthes, R. A., 1983: A review of regional models of the Atmosphere in middle latitudes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 1306-1335.

Anthes, R. A., 1983: Regional models of the atmosphere in middle latitudes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 1306-1335.

Anthes, R. A., 1984: Enhancement of convective precipitation by mesoscale variations in vegetative covering in semiarid regions. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23, 541-554.

Anthes, R. A., 1990: Recent applications of the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model to synoptic, mesoscale and climate studies. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71, 1610-1629.

Anthes, R. A., 1990: Advances in the understanding and prediction of cyclone development with limited-area fine-mesh models. Extratropical Cyclones: The Eric Palmén Memorial Volume, Newton, C. W. and E. O. Halopainen, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 221-253.

Anthes, R. A. and D. P. Baumhefner, 1984: A diagram depicting forecast skill and predictability. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 65, 701-703.

Anthes, R. A. and F. Chen, 1993: Development and analysis of prognostic equations for mesoscale kinetic energy and mesoscale (subgrid-scale) fluxes for large-scale atmospheric models. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 3751-3774.

Anthes, R. A., E.-Y. Hsie, and Y.-H. Kuo, 1987: Description of the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model version 4 (MM4)NCAR Tech. Note, 66 pp.

Anthes, R. A. and D. Keyser, 1979: Tests of a fine-mesh model over Europe and the United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107, 963-984.

Anthes, R. A., Y. H. Kuo, E. Y. Hsie, S. Low-Nam, and T. W. Bettge, 1989: Estimation of episodic and climatological skill and uncertainty in regional numerical models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 115, 763-806.

Anthes, R. A., Y.-H. Kuo, S. G. Benjamin, and Y.-F. Li, 1982: The evolution of the mesoscale environment of severe local storms: Preliminary modeling results. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 1187-1213.

Anthes, R. A., Y.-H. Kuo, and J. R. Gyakum, 1983: Numerical simulations of a case of explosive marine cyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 1174-1188.

Anthes, R. A., Y.-H. Kuo, E.-Y. Hsie, S. Low-Nam, and T. W. Bettge, 1989: Estimation of skill and uncertainty in regional numerical models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 115, 763-806.

Anthes, R. A., Y.-H. Kuo, D. P. Paumhefner, R. M. Errico, and T. W. Bettge, 1985: Predictability of mesoscale atmospheric motions. Issues in Atmospheric and Ocean Modeling, Saltzman, B., Ed., Academic Press, 159-202.

Anthes, R. A., N. L. Seaman, and T. T. Warner, 1980: Comparisons of numerical simulations of the planetary boundary layer by a mixed-layer and multi-level model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 365-376.

Anthes, R. A., J. W. Trout, and S. L. Rosenthal, 1971: Comparisons of tropical cyclone simulations with and without the assumption of circular symmetry. Mon. Wea. Rev., 99, 759-766.

Anthes, R. A. and T. T. Warner, 1974: Prediction of Mesoscale Flows Over Complex Terrain.

Anthes, R. A. and T. T. Warner, 1978: Development of hydrodynamic models suitable for air pollution and other mesometeorological studies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 1045-1078.

Anthes, R. A. e., 1982: A national STORM program . . . scientific basis and major objectives.

Anthony, R. A. and P. W. Leftwich, 1992: Trends in severe local storm watch verification at the National Severe Storms Forecast Center. Wea. Forecasting, 7, 613-622.

Antonia, R. A., A. J. Chambers, and N. Phan-Thien, 1980: Taylor's hypothesis and spectra of velocity and temperature derivatives in a turbulent shear flow. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 19, 19-29.

Antonia, R. A., C. A. Friehe, and C. W. V. Atta, 1979: Temperature ramps in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 99-108.

Antonia, R. A., S. Rajagopalan, and A. J. Chambers, 1983: Conditional sampling of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 69-78.

Antonia, R. A. and M. R. Raupach, 1993: Spectral scaling laws in a high Reynolds number laboratory boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 65, 289-306.

Antonia, R. A. and R. J. Smalley, 2001: Scaling Range Exponents from X-Wire Measurements in the Atmospheric Surface Layer. Bound. Layer Meteor., 100, 439-457.

Antonia, R. A., T. Zhou, and G. P. Romano, 2002: Small-scale turbulence characteristics of two-dimensional bluff body wakes. J. Fluid Mech., 459, 67-92.

Antonov, J. I., 1993: Linear trends of temperature at intermediate and deep layers of the North Atlantic and the North Pacific Oceans: 1957-1981. J. Climate, 6, 1928-1942.

Aoki, T., 1980: A method for matching the HIRS-2 and AVHRR pictures of TIROS-N satellites. Meteorological Satellite Center Tech. Note 2, Tokyo, Japan, 15-26.

Aoki, T., M. Fukabori, and T. Takao, 2002: Characteristics of UV-B Irradiance at Syowa Station, Antarctica: Analyses of the Measurements and Comparison with Numerical Simulations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80, 161-170.

Apel, E. C., J. C. Calvert, R. Zika, M. O. Rodgers, V. P. Aneja, J. F. Meagher, and W. A. Loneman, 1995: Hydrocarbon measurement during the 1992 southern oxidants study Atlanta intensive: Protocol and quality assurance. Regional Photochemical Measurement and Modeling Studies. Proc. Int. Specialty Conf., Vol. 3, Pittsburgh.

Apel, J., 1994: An improved model of the ocean surface wave vector spectrum and its effect on radar backscatter. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 16269-16291.

Apel, J. R., 1987: Principles of Ocean Physics. Academic Press, 634.

Appel, B. R., E. L. Kothay, E. M. Hoffer, G. M. Hidy, and J. J. Wesolowski, 1978: Sulfate and nitrate data from the California aerosol characterization experiment (ACHEX. Environ. Sci. Technol., 12, 418-425.

Appenzeller, C. and H. C. Davies, 1992: Structure of stratospheric intrusions into the troposphere. Nature, 358, 570-572.

Appenzeller, C., H. C. Davies, and W. A. Norton, 1996: Fragmentation of stratospheric intrusions. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1435-1456.

Appleman, H., 1953: The formation of exhaust condensation trails by jet aircraft. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 34, 14-20.

Appleman, H., 1953: The formation of exhaust contrails by jet aircraft. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 34, 14-20.

Appleman, H., 1954: Design of a cloud-phase chart. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 35, 223-225.

Appleman, H. S., 1953: The formation of exhaust condensation trails by jet aircraft. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 34, 14-20.

Appleman, H. S., 1954: Memorandum on the effect of engine power setting on contrail formation and intensity. Air Weather Service Tech. Rep. AWS/ TR-105-126, 4pp. [DTIC AD-074310.].

Appleman, H. S., 1957: Derivation of jet-aircraft contrailformation curves. Air Weather Service Tech. Rep. AWS/ TR-105-145. 46pp. [DTIC AD-125760.].

Applequist, S., G. E. Gahrs, R. L. Pfeffer, and X. F. Niu, 2002: Comparison of Methodologies for Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 783-799.

ApSimon, H. M., A. J. H. Goddard, and J. Wrigley, 1985: Long-range atmospheric dispersion of radioisotopes-I. The MESOS model. Atmos. Environ., 19, 99-111.

ApSimon, H. M., M. Kruse, and J. N. B. Bell, 1987: Ammonia emissions and their role in acid deposition. Atmos. Environ., 21, 1939-1946.

Arakawa, A., 1966: Computational design for long-term numerical integrations of the equations of atmospheric motion. Part I: Two dimensional incompressible flow. J. Comp. Phy., 1, 119-143.

Arakawa, A., 1969: Parameterization of cumulus convection. Proc. of the WMO/IUGG Symp. of Numerical Weather Prediction, Tokyo, Japan, Japan Meteorological Society.

Arakawa, A., 1972: Design of the UCLA general circulation model. Numerical Simulation of Weather and Climate, 116 pp.

Arakawa, A., 1975: Modelling clouds and cloud processes for use in climate model. The Physical Basis of Climate and Climate Modelling, GARP Publication Series, ICSU/ WMO, 183-197.

Arakawa, A., 1988: Finite-difference methods in climate. Physically Based Modelling and Simulation of Climate and Climatic Change. Part I modeling, Schlesinger, M. E., Ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 79-168.

Arakawa, A., 1993: Closure assumptions in the cumulus parameterization problem. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1-16.

Arakawa, A. and J.-M. Chen, 1987: Closure assumptions in the cumulus parameterization problem. Short and Medium Range Numerical Weather Prediction, Matsun, T., Ed., Universal Academy Press, 107-131.

Arakawa, A. and M.-D. Cheng, 1993: The Arakawa-Schubert cumulus parameterization. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 123-136.

Arakawa, A. and Y.-J. G. Hsu, 1990: Energy conserving and potential-enstrophy dissipating schemes for the shallow water equations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1960-1969.

Arakawa, A. and C. S. Konor, 1996: Vertical differencing of the primitive equations based on the Charney-Phillips grid in hybrid sigma-p vertical coordinates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124.

Arakawa, A. and C. S. Konor, 1996: A generalized vertical coordinate and the choice of vertical grid for atmospheric models. The life Cycles of Extratropical Cyclones. Vol. III, Gronas, S., Shapiro, M. A., Ed., Bergen, Norway, Geophy. Inst., University of Bergen, 259-264.

Arakawa, A. and V. R. Lamb, 1977: Computational design of the basic dynamical processes of the UCLA general circulation model. Methods in Computational Physics, Chang, J., Ed., Academic Press, 174-264.

Arakawa, A. and V. R. Lamb, 1979: Energy and potential energy conserving scheme for the shallow-water equations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 60, p. 6-08.

Arakawa, A. and V. R. Lamb, 1981: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 18-36.

Arakawa, A. and S. Moorthi, 1988: Baroclinic instability in vertically discrete systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1688-1707.

Arakawa, A. and W. H. Schubert, 1974: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 674-701.

Arakawa, A. and M. J. Suarez, 1983: Vertical differencing of the primitive equations in sigma-coordinates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 34-45.

Arakawa, H., 1952: Mame Taifu or midget typhoon (small storms of typhoon intensity ). Geophys. Mag., 24, 463-474.

Arakawa, S., K. Yamada, and T. Toya, 1982: A study of foehn in the Hokuriku district using the AMe DAS data. Meteor. Geophys., 33, 149-163.

Arber, T. D., A. W. Longbottom, C. L. Gerrard, and A. M. Milne, 2001: A Staggered Grid, Lagrangian-Eulerian Remap Code for 3-D MHD Simulations. J. Comp. Phy., 171, 151-181.

Arber, T. D. and R. G. L. Vann, 2002: A Critical Comparison of Eulerian-Grid-Based Vlasov Solvers. J. Comp. Phy., 180, 339-357.

Arbic, B. K., W. B. Owens, C. D. Jones, M. Collins, P. M. Cox, and S. A. Spall, 2001: Climatic Warming of Atlantic Intermediate Waters

The Carbon Cycle Response to ENSO: A Coupled Climate-Carbon Cycle Model Study. J. Clim., 14, 4091-4108.

Arblaster, J. M., G. A. Meehl, and A. M. Moore, 2002: Interdecadal modulation of Australian rainfall. Climate Dynamics, 18, 519-532.

Archer, D., S. Emerson, T. Powell, and C. S. Wong, 1993: Numerical hindcasting of sea surface pCO2 at weathership station Papa. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 32, Pergamon.

Arciszewska, C. and J. McClatchey, 2001: The importance of meteorological data for modelling air pollution using ADMS-Urban. Meteor. App., 8, 345-350.

Ardanuy, P., 1979: On the observed diurnal oscillation of the Somali jet. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107, 1694-1700.

Ardanuy, P. E., D. Han, and V. V. Salomonson, 1991: The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) science and data system requirements. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 29, 75-88.

Ardanuy, P. E. and H. L. Kyle, 1986: El Nin˜ o and outgoing long-wave radiation: Observations from Nimbus-7 ERB. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 415-433.

Ardanuy, P. E., L. L. Stowe, A. Gruber, and M. Weiss, 1991: Short-wave, longwave and net cloud-radiative forcing as determined from Nimbus 7 observations. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 1853-718549.

Ardhuin, F. and T. H. C. Herbers, 2002: Bragg scattering of random surface gravity waves by irregular seabed topography. J. Fluid Mech., 451, 1-34.

Arecchi, F. T., G. Giacomelli, L. Ramazza, and S. Residori, 1990: Experimental evidence of chaotic itinerancy and spatiotemporal chaos in optics. Phys. Rev. Lett., 65, 2531-2534.

Arenberg, D., 1939: Turbulence as a major factor in the growth of cloud droplets. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 20, 444-445.

Arfken, G., 1985: Mathematical Methods for Physicists. 3d ed. Academic Press, 985.

Argentini, S., G. Mastrantonio, G. Fiocco, and R. Ocone, 1992: Complexity of the wind field as observed by a sodar system and by automatic weather stations on the Nansen Ice Sheet, Antarctica, during summer 1988-89: Two case studies. Tellus, 44B, 422-429.

Argentini, S., I. V. Petenko, G. Mastrantonio, V. A. Bezverkhnii, and A. P. Viola, 2001: Spectral characteristics of East Antarctica meteorological parameters during 1994 (Paper 2001JD900112). J. Geophy. Res., 106, 12,463-12,476.

Arhan, M., A. C. d. Verdie`re, and L. Me´mery, 1994: The eastern boundary of the subtropical North-Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 1295-1316.

Aristov, S. N. and I. M. Gitman, 2002: Viscous flow between two moving parallel disks: exact solutions and stability analysis. J. Fluid Mech., 464, 209-216.

Arkilic, E. B., K. S. Breuer, and M. A. Schmidt, 2001: Mass flow and tangential momentum accommodation in silicon micromachined channels. J. Fluid Mech., 437, 29-44.

Arkin, P. and B. N. Meisner, 1987: The relationship between large-scale convective rainfall and cold cloud over the Western Hemisphere during 1982-85. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 51-74.

Arkin, P. and P. J. Webster, 1985: Annual and interannual variability of the tropical-extratropical interaction: An empirical study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 1510-1523.

Arkin, P. A., 1979: The relationship between fractional coverage of high cloud and rainfall accumulation during GATE over the B-scale array. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107, 1382-1387.

Arkin, P. A., 1982: The relationship between interannual variability in the 200-mb tropical wind field and the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 1393-1404.

Arkin, P. A., 1989: The global climate for December 1988-February 1989: Cold episode in the tropical Pacific continues. J. Climate, 2, 737-757.

Arkin, P. A. and P. E. Ardanuy, 1989: Estimating climatic-scale precipitation from space-A review. J. Climate, 2, 1229-1238.

Arkin, P. A. and J. E. Janowiak, 1993: Tropical and subtropical precipitation. Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change. Gurney, R. J., J. L. Foster, and C. L. Parkinson, Eds., Cambridge, 165-180.

Arkin, P. A., R. Joyce, and J. E. Janowiak, 1994: IR techniques: GOES precipitation Index. Remote Sens. Rev., 11, 107-124.

Arkin, P. A. and B. N. Meisner, 1987: The relationship between large-scale convective rainfall and cold cloud over the western hemisphere during 1982-1984. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 51-74.

Arkin, P. A. and P. Xie, 1994: The Global Precipitation Climatology Project: First Algorithm Intercomparison Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75, 401-419.

Arking, A., 1991: The radiative effects of clouds and their impact on climate. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72, 795-813.

Arking, A. and J. D. Childs, 1985: Retrieval of cloud cover parameters from multispectral satellite images. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 24, 322-333.

Arking, A., M.-D. Chou, and W. L. Ridgway, 1995: On estimating the effects of clouds on atmospheric absorption based on flux observations above and below cloud level. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1885-1888.

Arking, A. and D. Ziskin, 1994: Relationship between clouds and sea surface temperature in the western tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 7, 988-1000.

Armenio, V. and S. Sarkar, 2002: An investigation of stably stratified turbulent channel flow using large-eddy simulation. J. Fluid Mech., 459, 1-42.

Armi, L., 1986: The hydraulics of two flowing layers with different densities. J. Fluid Mech., 163, 27-58.

Armi, L. and and, 1986: Maximal two-layer exchange through a contraction with barotropic net flow. J. Fluid Mech., 164, 27-52.

Armi, L. and and, 1987: A generalization of the concept of maximal exchange in a strait. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 14679-14680.

Armi, L. and and, 1988: The flow of Mediterranean water through the Strait of Gibraltar. Progress in Oceanography Vol. 21, Pergamon, 1-105.

Armi, L. and D. Farmer, 1985: The internal hydraulics of the Strait of Gibraltar and associated sills and narrows. Oceanol. Acta, 8, 37-46.

Armi, L., D. Hebert, N. Oakey, J. Price, P. L. Richardson, T. Rossby, and B. Ruddick, 1989: Two years in the life of a Mediterranean salt lens. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 354-370.

Armi, L. and H. Stommel, 1983: Four views of a portion of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 828-857. Climate Analysis Center.

Armi, L. and W. Zenk, 1984: Large lenses of highly saline Mediterranean water. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, 1560-1576.

Armijo, L., 1969: A theory for the determination of wind and precipitation velocities with Doppler radars. J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 570-573.

Armstrong, B. H., 1968: Analysis of the Curtis-Godson approximation and radiation transmission through inhomogeneous Atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci., 25, 312-322.

Armstrong, R., 1993: Snow depth and grainsize relationships with relevance for passive microwave studies. Glaciology, 17, 17-1176.

Armstrong, R. L., A. T. C. Chang, A. Rango, and E. Josberger, 1993: Snow depths and grainsize relationships with relevance for passive microwave studies. Ann. Glac., 17, 171-176.

Arnason, G. and R. S. Greenfield, 1972: Micro- and macro-structures of numerically simulated convective clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 342-367.

Arnold, C. P. and C. H. Dey, 1986: Observing-system simulation experiments: Past, present and future. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 67, 687ñ6-95.

Arnold, G. T., M. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, and and, 1994: MODIS airborne simulator vis-ible and near-infrared calibration-1991 FIRE-Cirrus Field Experiment: Calibration version-FIRE King 1.1. NASA Tech. Memo. 104600. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

Arnold, G. T., M. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, and M. D. King, 1994: MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration1992 ASTEX Field Experiment: Calibration version- ASTEX King 1.0. NASA Tech. Memo. 104599. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

Arnold, L., 1974: Stochastic Differential Equations, Theory and Applications. Wiley and Sons, 228.

Arnold, L. G., 1984: Formula connecting sample and moment stability of linear stochastic systems. SIAM J. Appl. Math., 44, 793-802.

Arnold, L. G., 1992: Stochastic Differential Equations: Theory and Applications. Krieger, 228.

Arnold, L. G. and W. Kliemann, 1983: Qualitative theory of stochastic systems. Probabilistic Analysis and Related Topics. Vol. III. A. T. Bharucha-Reid, Ed., Academic Press, 2-73.

Arnold, L. G., G. Papanicolaou, and V. Wihstutz, 1986: Asymptotic analysis of the Lyapunov exponent and rotation of the random oscillator and applications. SIAM J. Appl. Math., 46, 427-450.

Arnold, V. I., 1978: Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics. Springerverlag, 508.

Arnold, V. I., 1988: Geometrical Methods in the Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations. 2d ed. Springerverlag, 334.

Arnol'd, V. I., 1965: Conditions for nonlinear stability of stationary plane curvilinear flows of an ideal fluid. Sov. Math., 6, 773-777.

Arnol'd, V. I., 1969: On an a priori estimate in the theory of hydrodynamical stability. Amer. Math. Soc. Transl. Ser. 2, 79, 267-269.

Arnol'd, V. I., 1969: On an a priori estimate of hydrodynamical stability. Amer. Math. Soc. Transl. Series 2, 79, 267-269.

Arnol'd, V. I., 1992: Catastrophe Theory. Springer Verlag. 150 / xiii.

Arnold, V. I. and A. Avez, 1968: Ergodic Problems of Classical Mechanics. Addison-Wesley, 286.

Arnold, V. I., V. V. Kozlov, and A. I. Neishtadt, 1988: Dynamical Systems III. Mathematical Aspects of Classical and Celestial Mechanics. Springerverlag, 291.

Arnone, R. A., D. A. Wiesenburg, and K. D. Saunders, 1990: The origin and characteristics of the Algerian Current. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 1587-1598.

Arnott, W. P., Y. Dong, and and, 1995: Extinction efficiency in the infrared (2 mm-18 mm) of laboratory ice clouds: Observations of scattering minima in the Christiansen bands of ice. Appl. Opt., 34, 541-551.

Arnott, W. P., Y. Y. Dong, and J. Hallett, 1994: Role of small ice crystals in radiative properties of cirrus: A case study, FIRE II, November 22, 1991. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 1371-1381.

Arnott, W. P. and D. L. Mitchell, 1994: A model predicting the evolution of ice particle size spectra and radiative properties of cirrus clouds. Part II: Dependence of absorption and extinction on ice crystal morphology. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 817-832.

Arola, A., 1999: Parameterization of Turbulent and Mesoscale Fluxes for Heterogeneous Surfaces. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 584-598.

Arons, A. B. and H. Stommel, 1967: On the abyssal circulation of the World Ocean. Part III: An advectionlateral mixing model of the distribution of a tracer property in an ocean basin. Deep-Sea Res., 14, 441-457.

Arora, B. R. and A. D. Padgaonkar, 1981: Time-variation of solar influence on tropospheric circulation. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 43, 91-95.

Arora, V. K. and G. J. Boer, 2001: Effects of simulated climate change on the hydrology of major river basins. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 3335.

Arpe, K., 1991: The hydrological cycle in the ECMWF short-range forecasts. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 16, 33-60.

Arpe, K., H. Behr, and L. Dumenil, 1993: Validation of the ECHAM models with respect of precipitation, snow and river runoff: Analysis methods of precipitation on a global scale. Report of a GEWEX workshop, WCRP-81, WMO-TD-No. 558.

Arpe, K. and H. Cattle, 1993: A comparison of surface stress and precipitation fields in short-range forecasts over the Antarctic region. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 13035-13044.

Arpe, K., A. Hollingsworth, M. S. Tracton, A. C. Lorenc, S. Uppala, and P. KaHberg, 1985: The response of numerical weather prediction systems to FGGE level IIB data. Part II: Forecast verification in implications for predictability. Quart. J. Meteor. Soc., 67-102.

Arpe, K. and E. Klinker, 1986: Systematic errors in the ECMWF operational forecasting model in mid-latitudes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 181-202.

Arritt, R. A., 1993: Effects of the large-scale flow on characteristic features of the sea breeze. J. Appl. Meteor., 32, 116-125.

Arritt, R. W., 1987: The effect of water surface temperature on lake breeze and thermal internal boundary layers. Bound-Layer Meteor., 40, 101-125.

Arritt, R. W., 1987: The effect of water surface temperature on lake breezes and thermal internal boundary layers. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 40, 101-125.

Arritt, R. W., 1989: Numerical modeling of the offshore extent of sea breezes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 115, 547-570.

Arritt, R. W., 1991: A numerical study of sea breeze frontogenesis. Fifth Conf. on Meteorology and Oceanography of the Coastal Zone, Miami, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 26-29.

Arritt, R. W., 1993: Effects of the large-scale flow on characteristic features of the sea breeze. J. Appl. Meteor., 32, 116-125.

Arritt, R. W., 2000: Preface. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 29501.

Arritt, R. W., T. D. Rink, M. Segal, D. P. Todey, C. A. Clark, M. J. Mitchell, and K. M. Labas, 1997: The Great Plains Low-Level Jet during the Warm Season of 1993. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2176-2192.

Arsen'ev, V. S., 1967: Currents and Water Masses of the Bering Sea. Nauka. Izdatel'stro, 135.

Arsenyev, S. A., S. V. Dobroklonsky, R. M. Mamedov, and N. K. Shelkovnikov, 1975: Direct measurements of some characteristics of fine-scale turbulence from a stationary platform in the open sea. Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 11, 530-533.

Artz, R., R. A. Pielke, and J. Galloway, 1985: Comparison of the ARL/ATAD constant level and the NCAR isentropic trajectory analysis for selected case studies. Atmos. Environ., 19, 47-63.

Arya, P., 1988: Introduction to Micrometeorology. Academic Press, 307.

Arya, S. P., 1981: Parameterizing the height of the stable atmospheric boundary layer. J. Appl. Meteor., 20, 1192-1202.

Arya, S. P., 1988: Introduction to Micrometeorology. Academic Press, 303 pp.

Arya, S. P. S., 1975: A drag partition theory for determining the large-scale roughness parameter and wind stress on the Arctic pack ice. J. Geophys. Res., 80, 3447-3454.

Arya, S. P. S., 1995: Modelling and parameterization of near-source diffusion in weak winds. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 1112-1122.

AS.] Avila, L. A. and R. J. Pasch, 1992: Atlantic tropical systems of 1991. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 2688-2696.

Asai, M., M. Minagawa, and M. Nishioka, 2002: The instability and breakdown of a near-wall low-speed streak. J. Fluid Mech., 455, 289-314.

Asai, T., 1964: Cumulus convection in the atmosphere with vertical wind shear: Numerical experiment. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 42, 245-259.

Asai, T., 1965: A numerical study of the air-mass transformation over the Japan Sea in winter. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan., 43, 1-15.

Asai, T., 1970: Stability of a plane parallel flow with variable vertical shear and unstable stratification. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 48, 129-139.

Asai, T., 1970: Thermal instability of a plane parallel flow with variable vertical shear and unstable stratification. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 48, 129-139.

Asai, T., 1970: Three-dimensional features of thermal convection in a plane Couette flow. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 48, 18-29.

Asai, T., 1970: Stability of a plane parallel flow with a variable vertical shear and unstable stratification. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 48, 12-9138.

Asai, T., 1972: Thermal instability of a shear flow turning direction with height. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 50, 525-532.

Asai, T., 1972: Thermal instability of a shear flow turning the direction with height. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 50, 525-532.

Asai, T. and A. Kasahara, 1967: A theoretical study of the compensating downdrafts associated with cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 487-496.

Asai, T. and S. Mitsumoto, 1978: Effects of an inclined land surface on the land and sea breeze circulation: A numerical experiment. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan., 56, 559-570.

Asai, T. and I. Nakasuji, 1973: On the stability of the Ekman boundary-layer flow with thermally unstable stratification. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 51, 29-42.

Asano, S., M. Shiobara, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Miyake, 1995: A multichannel cloud pyranometer system for airborne measurement of solar spectral reflectance by clouds. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12, 479-487.

Asano, S., A. Uchiyama, and M. Shiobara, 1993: Spectral optical thickness and size distribution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosols as estimated by ground-based sunphotometry. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71, 165-173.

Askelson, M. A., J.-P. Aubagnac, and J. M. Straka, 2000: An Adaptation of the Barnes Filter Applied to the Objective Analysis of Radar Data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3050.

Askne, J. and H. Nordius, 1987: Estimation of tropospheric delay for microwaves from surface weather data. Radio Sci., 22, 379-386.

Askne, J. I. H. and E. R. Westwater, 1986: A review of ground-based remote sensing of temperature and moisture by passive microwave radiometers. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., GE-24, 340-352.

Aslam, T. D., 2001: A Level-Set Algorithm for Tracking Discontinuities in Hyperbolic Conservation Laws. I. Scalar Equations. J. Comp. Phys., 167, 413.

Aslanyan, A. and E. B. Davies, 2001: Separation of Variables in Deformed Cylinders. J. Compu. Phy., 174, 327-344.

Asmolov, E. S., 2001: Flow past a sphere undergoing unsteady rectilinear motion and unsteady drag at small Reynolds number. J. Fluid Mech., 446, 95-120.

Asnani, G. C., 1993: Tropical Meteorology. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, 1202.

Asnani, G. C. and J. H. Kinuthia, 1979: Diurnal variation of precipitation in East Africa. Kenya Meteorological Department. Research Re-port No. 8/ 79, 1-58.

Aspliden, C. I. and Y. T. J. B. Sabine, 1976: Some climatological aspects of West African disturbance lines during GATE. Mon. Wea Rev., 104, 1029-1035.

Aspliden, D. I., Y. Tourre, and J. B. Sabine, 1976: Some climatological aspects of West African disturbance lines during GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 1029-1035.

Asrar, G. and J. Dozier, 1994: EOS. Science Strategy for the Earth Observing System. AIP Press, 128.

Asrar, G., M. Fuchs, E. T. Kanemasu, and J. L. Hatfield, 1984: Estimating absorbed photosynthetic radiation and leaf area index from spectral reflectance in wheat. Agron J., 76, 300-306.

Asrar, G., E. Kanemasu, G. P. Miller, and R. L. Weiser, 1986: Light interception and leaf area estimates from measurements of grass canopy reflectance. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., GE-24, 76-82.

Assaf, G. and A. Hecht, 1974: Sea straits: A dynamical model. Deep-Sea Res., 21, 947-958.

As-Salek, J. A., 1997: Negative Surges in the Meghna Estuary in Bangladesh. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 1638-1648.

Assel, R. A., 1990: An ice cover climatology for Lake Erie and Lake Superior for the winter seasons 1897-98 to 1982-83. Int. J. Climatol., 10, 731-748.

Assel, R. A. and F. H. Quinn, 1979: A historical perspective of the 1976-77 Lake Michigan ice cover. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107, 336-341.

Assel, R. A., F. H. Quinn, G. A. Leshkevich, and S. J. Bolsenga, 1983: Great Lakes Ice Atlas. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 115.

Asselin de Beauville, C. A., R. Petit, G. Marion, and J. P. Lacaux, 1988: Evolution of peaks in the spectral distribution of raindrops from warm isolated maritime clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 332-03332.

Asselin, R., 1972: Frequency filter for time integration. Mon. Wea Rev., 100, 487-490.

Association, N. W., 1986: Satellite Imagery Interpretation for Forecasters. Vol. I: General Interpretation Synoptic Analysis. Parke, P. S., Ed., National Weather Association.

Association, N. W., 1986: Satellite Imagery Interpretation for Forecasters. Vol. II: Precipitation Convection. Parke, P. S., Ed., National Weather Association.

Association, N. W., 1986: Satellite Imagery Interpretation for Forecasters. Vol. III: Tropical Weather, Fog and Stratus Aerosols Winds and Turbulence Glossary. Parke, P. S., Ed., National Weather Association.

Assouline, S., 1993: Estimation of lake hydrologic budget terms using the simultaneous solution of water, heat and salt balances and a Kalman filtering approach-Application to Lake Kin-neret. Water Resour. Res., 29, 3041-3048.

Assouline, S., 1993: On the cooling of the Kinneret and the reduction in solar radiation (in Hebrew). Agamit, 79, 14-15.

Assouline, S. and Y. Mahrer, 1993: Evaporation from Lake Kinneret. A. Eddy correlation system measurements and energy balance estimates. Water Resour. Res., 29, 901-910.

Assouline, S. and Y. Mahrer, 1993: Evaporation from Lake Kinneret. Part A: Eddy correlation system measurements and energy budget estimates. Water Resour. Res., 29, 901-910.

Astling, E. G., J. Paegle, E. Miller, and C. J. O'Brien, 1985: Boundary layer control of nocturnal convection associated with a synoptic scale system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 540-552.

Astraldi, G. and G. P. Gasparini, 1992: The seasonal characteristics of the circulation in the North Mediterranean Basin and their relationship with the atmospheric-climatic conditions. J. Geophys. Res., 97(C6), 9531-9540.

Asuma, Y., S. Iwata, K. Kikuchi, G. W. K. Moore, R. Kimura, K. Tsuboki, P. F. O. b. D. R. a. Tuktoyaktuk, N. Territories, and Canada, 1998: during the Beaufort and Arctic Storms Experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 2384-2405.

Asvadurov, S., V. Druskin, and L. Knizhnerman, 2002: Application of the Difference Gaussian Rules to Solution of Hyperbolic Problems. II. Global Expansion. J. Compu. Phy., 175, 24-49.

Ataktu¨ rk, S. S. and K. B. Katsaros, 1987: Intrinsic frequency spectra of short gravity-capillary waves obtained from temporal measurements of wave height on a lake. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 513-15141.

Ataktu¨ rk, S. S. and K. B. Katsaros, 1989: The K-Gill: A twin pro-pellervane anemometer for measurements of atmospheric turbulence. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6, 509-515.

Atger, F., 1999: The Skill of Ensemble Prediction Systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 1941-1953.

Athanassiadou, M. and I. P. Castro, 2001: Neutral Flow over a Series of Rough Hills: A Laboratory Experiment. Bound. Layer Meteor., 101, 1-30.

Atkhen, K., J. Fontaine, and J. E. Wesfreid, 2000: Highly turbulent Couette-Taylor bubbly flow patterns. J. Fluid Mech., 55.

Atkins, N. T. and R. M. Wakimoto, 1997: Influence of the Synoptic-Scale Flow on Sea Breezes Observed during CaPE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2112-2130.

Atkins, N. T., R. M. Wakimoto, and C. L. Ziegler, 1998: Observations of the Finescale Structure of a Dryline during VORTEX 95. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 525-550.

Atkins, N. T., T. M. Weckwerth, and R. M. Wakimoto, 1995: Observations of the sea-breeze front during CaPE. Part II: Dual Doppler and aircraft analysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 944-969.

Atkins, N. T., M. L. Weisman, and L. J. Wicker, 1999: The Influence of Preexisting Boundaries on Supercell Evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 2910-2927.

Atkins, P. W., 1980: Physical Chemistry. 3d ed. Oxford University Press, 857.

Atkinson, B. W., 1981: Mesoscale Atmospheric Circulations. Academic Press, 495 pp.

Atkinson, B. W., J. G. Li, and R. S. Plant, 2001: Numerical Modeling of the Propagation Environment in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Persian Gulf. J. App. Meteor., 40, 586.

Atkinson, G. D., 1971: Forecasters guide to tropical meteorology. Air Weather Service (MAC) U.S. Air Force Tech. Rep., 240, 360.

Atkinson, K. E., 1988: An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. 2d ed. Wiley and Sons, 693.

Atkinson, M. J., F. I. M. Thomas, E. Terrill, K. Morita, and C. C. Liu, 1995: A micro-hole potentiostatic oxygen sensor for oceanic CTDs. Deep-Sea Res., 42, 761-771.

Atlas, D., 1954: The estimation of cloud content by radar. J. Meteor., 11, 309-317.

Atlas, D., 1954: The estimation of cloud parameters by radar. J. Meteor., 11, 309-317.

Atlas, D., 1957: Drop size and radar structure of a precipitation streamer. J. Meteor., 14, 261-271.

Atlas, D., 1960: Radar detection of the sea breeze. J. Meteor., 17, 244-258.

Atlas, D., 1964: Advances in Radar Meteorology. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 6, H. Lansberg, Ed.

Atlas, D., Ed., 1990: Radar in Meteorology. American Meteorological Society, Boston, 806 pp.

Atlas, D., 1994: Footprints of storms on the sea: A view from space-borne synthetic aperture radar. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 796-17969.

Atlas, D. and T. L. Bell, 1992: The relation of radar to cloud area-time integrals and implications for rain measurements from space. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 1997-2008.

Atlas, D. and S.-H. Chou, 1982: Coast-ocean-atmosphere-ocean mesoscale interactionMemorandum 83903.

Atlas, D., S.-H. Chou, and W. P. Byerly, 1983: The influence of coastal shape on winter mesoscale air-sea interaction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 245-252.

Atlas, D., K. R. Hardy, R. Wexler, and R. J. Boucher, 1963: On the origin of hurricane spiral bands. Technical Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology. Mexico Geofisica Internacional, 3, 123-132.

Atlas, D., W. G. Harper, F. H. Ludlam, and W. C. Macklin, 1960: Radar scatter by large hail. Dept. Meteor., Imperial Coll. Sci. Tech., London, Tech. Note No. 2.

Atlas, D., M. Kerker, and W. Hitschfeld, 1953: Scattering and attenuation by nonspherical atmospheric particles. J. Atmos. Terres. Physics, 3, 108-119.

Atlas, D., S. Y. Matrosov, A. J. Heymsfield, M. D. Chou, and D. B. Wolff, 1995: Radar and radiation properties of ice clouds. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 2329-2345.

Atlas, D., S. Y. Matrosov, and D. B. Wolff, 2000: Corrigendum. J. App. Meteor., 39, 2495.

Atlas, D., J. I. Metcalf, J. H. Richter, and E. E. Gossard, 1970: The birth of CAT and microscale turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 90-3913.

Atlas, D., D. Rosenfeld, and and, 1993: C-band attenuation by tropical rainfall in Darwin, Australia, using climatologically tuned ZeR relations. J. Appl. Meteor., 32, 426-430.

Atlas, D., D. Rosenfeld, and D. A. Short, 1990: The estimation of convective rainfall by area integrals. Part I. The theoretical and empirical basis. J. Geophys. Res., 95D, 2153-2160.

Atlas, D., D. Rosenfeld, and D. Woffl, 1990: Climatologically tuned reflectivity rain rate relations and links to area-time integrals. J. Appl. Meteor., 29, 1120-1135.

Atlas, D., D. Rosenfeld, and D. B. Wolff, 1990: Climatologically tuned reflectivity-rain rate relations and links to area-time in-tegrals. J. Appl. Meteor., 29, 1120-1135.

Atlas, D., R. C. Srivastava, and R. S. Sekhon, 1973: Doppler radar characteristics of precipitation at vertical incidence. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 11, 1-35.

Atlas, D., R. Tatehira, R. C. Srivastava, W. Marker, and R. E. Carbone, 1969: Precipitation-induced mesoscale wind perturbations in the melting layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 95, 544-560.

Atlas, D., O. W. Thiele, and Eds., 1981: Precipitation measurements from space. NASA Workshop Report. GSFC Greenbelt MD, 375.

Atlas, D. and C. W. Ulbrich, 2000: An Observationally Based Conceptual Model of Warm Oceanic Covective Rain in the Tropics. J. App. Meteor., 39, 2165.

Atlas, D., C. W. Ulbrich, and R. Meneghini, 1984: The multiparameter remote measurement of rainfall. Radio Sci., 19, 3-22.

Atlas, D. and C. W. Ulbricht, 1974: The physical basis for attenuationrainfall relationships and the measurement of rainfall parameters by combined attenuation and radar methods. J. Rech. Atmos., 8, 275-298.

Atlas, D. and C. W. Ulbrish, 1977: Path- and area-integrated rainfall measuremant by microwave atenuation in the 1-3 cm band. J. Appl. Meteor., 16, 1322-1331.

Atlas, D., B. Walter, S.-H. Chou, and P. J. Sheu, 1986: The structure of the unstable marine boundary layer viewed by lidar and aircraft observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 1301-1318.

Atlas, R., N. Wolfson, and J. Terry, 1993: The effect of SST and soil moisture anomalies on GLA model simulations of the 1988 United States summer drought. J. Climate, 6, 2034-2048.

Atlas, R. S. C. A. J., S. C. Bloom, R. N. Hoffman, J. Ardizzone, and G. Brin, 1991: Space-based surface wind vectors to aid understanding of air-sea interactions. Eos, 72, 201-208.

Atlas, R. S. C. B., 1989: Global surface wind vectors resulting from the assimilation of satellite wind speed data in atmospheric general circulation models. Oceans, 89, IEEE Publ. 89CH2780-5.

Atlas, R. S. C. R. D., A. J. Busalacchi, M. Ghil, S. Bloom, and E. Kalnay, 1987: Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation of Seasat data. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 6477-6487.

Atwater, M. A., 1971: The radiation budget for polluted layers ot the urban environment. J. Appl. Meteor., 10, 205-214.

Atwater, M. A., 1971: Radiation effects of pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 1367-1373.

Atwater, M. A., 1972: Thermal effects of organization and industrialization in the boundary layer: A numerical study. Boundary-Layer Met., 3, 229-245.

Atwater, M. A., 1977: Urbanization and pollutant effects on the thermal structure in four climatic regions. J. Appl. Meteor., 16, 888-895.

Atwater, M. A. and J. T. Ball, 1976: Comparisons of radiation computations using observed and estimated precipitable water. J. Appl. Meteor., 15, 1319-1320.

Atwater, M. A. and J. T. Ball, 1981: A surface solar radiation model for cloudy atmospheres. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 878-888.

Atwater, M. A. and P. S. Brown, 1974: Numerical computations of the latitudinal variation of solar radiation for an atmosphere of varying opacity. J. Appl. Meteor., 13, 289-297.

Aubert, E. F., 1957: On the release of latent heat as a factor in large scale atmospheric motions. J. Meteor., 14, 527-542.

Aubry, N., P. Holmes, J. L. Lumley, and E. Stone, 1988: The dynamics of coherent structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech., 192, 115-173.

Auchterlonie, L. J. and D. L. Bryant, 1981: Experimental study of millimetre-wave scattering from simulated hailstones in an open resonator. IEE Proc. H: Microwaves Antennas Propag., 128, 236-242.

Auclair, F., S. Casitas, and P. Marsaleix, 2000: Application of an Inverse Method to Coastal Modeling. J. Atmos. Ocean Tech., 17, 1368.

Auclair, F., P. Marsaleix, and C. Estournel, 2000: Sigma Coordinate Pressure Gradient Errors: Evaluation and Reduction by an Inverse Method. J. Atmos. Ocean Tech., 17, 1348.

Audouze, J. and G. I. ¨l, 1994: The Cambridge Atlas of Astronomy. 3d ed. Cambridge University Press, 473.

Auer, A. A., 1992: Wave cloud formations in the lee of southern New Zealand. Weather, 47, 103-105.

Auer, A. H., Jr., 1972: Distribution of graupel and hail with size. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 325-328.

Auer, A. H. and Jr., 1976: Observations of an industrial cumulus. J. Appl. Meteor., 15, 406-413.

Auer, A. H., Jr., and D. L. Veal, 1970: The dimensions of ice crystals in natural clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 919-926.

Auer, A. H. and J. D. Marwitz, 1968: Estimates of air and moisture flux into hailstorms on the high plains. J. Appl. Meteor., 7, 196-198.

Auer, S. J., 1987: Five-year climatological survey of the Gulf Stream system and its associated rings. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 1170-911726.

Augstein, A., H. Riehl, F. Ostapoff, and V. Wagner, 1973: Mass and energy transports in an undisturbed Atlantic trade wind flow. Mon. Wea. Rev., 101, 101-111.

Augstein, E., 1979: The atmospheric boundary layer over the tropical oceans. Meteorology over the Tropical Oceans, D. B. Shaw, Ed. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 73-103.

Augstein, E., H. Riehl, F. Ostapoff, and V. Wagner, 1973: Mass and energy transports in an undisturbed Atlantic trade-wind flow. Mon. Wea. Rev., 101, 101-111.

Augstein, E., H. Schmidt, and F. Ostapoff, 1974: The vertical structure of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer in undisturbed trade.

Augstein, E., H. Schmidt, and F. Ostapoff, 1974: The vertical structure of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer in undisturbed trade winds over the Atlantic Ocean. Bound.-Layer. Meteor., 6, 129-149.

Augstein, E. and M. Wendel, 1980: Modeling of the time-dependent atmospheric tradewind boundary layer with non-precipitating cumulus clouds. Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 53, 509-538.

Augustine, J. A., 1985: An automated method for the documentation of cloud-top characteristics of mesoscale convective systems. NOAA Tech. Memo ERL ESG 10. NTIS PB-85-204246 Boulder CO, 121.

Augustine, J. A. and and, 1991: Mesoscale convective complexes over the United States during 1986 and 1987. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 1575-1589.

Augustine, J. A. and F. Caracena, 1994: Lower-tropospheric precursors to nocturnal MCS development over the central United States. Wea. Forecasting, 9, 116-135.

Augustine, J. A. and K. W. Howard, 1988: Mesoscale convective complexes over the United States during 1985. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 685-701.

Augustine, J. A. and E. J. Zipser, 1987: The use of wind profilers in a mesoscale experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68, 4-17.

Aurela, M., T. Laurila, and J.-P. Tuovinen, 2001: Seasonal CO2 balances of a subarctic mire. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 1623.

Aurnou, J. M. and P. L. Olson, 2001: Experiments on Rayleigh--Benard convection, magnetoconvection and rotating magnetoconvection in liquid gallium. J. Fluid Mech., 283.

Austin, J., N. Butchart, and J. Knight, 2001: Three-dimensional chemical model simulations of the ozone layer: 2015-55. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 959-974.

Austin, J. M., 1941: Favorable conditions for cyclogenesis near the Atlantic coast. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 22, 270-272.

Austin, P., 1987: Relationship between measured radar reflectivity and surface rainfall. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1053-1070.

Austin, P., 1989: A stratocumulus thermodynamic analysis: July 5 case study. FIRE Science Results 1989 NASA Conference Publication 3079 NASA Langley Research Center, 119-124.

Austin, P., 1995: A linear stability analysis of stratocumulus convection driven by radiative cooling. Tellus, 47A, 259-274.

Austin, P., Y. Wang, R. Pincus, and V. Kujala, 1995: Precipitation in stratocumulus clouds: Observational and modeling results. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2329-2352.

Austin, P. H., M. B. Baker, A. M. Blyth, and J. B. Jensen, 1985: Small-scale variability in warm continental cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1123-1138.

Austin, P. H., S. Siems, and Y. Wang, 1995: Constraints on droplet growth in radiatively cooled stratocumulus clouds. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 14231-14243.

Austin, P. H., Y. Wang, R. Pincus, and V. Kujala, 1995: Precipitation in stratocumulus clouds: Observational and modelling results. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2329-2352.

Austin, P. M., 1987: Relation between measured radar reflectivity and surface rainfall. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1053-1070.

Austin, P. M. and A. C. Bemis, 1950: A quantitative study of the ''bright band'' in radar precipitation echoes. J. Meteor., 7, 14-5151.

Austin, P. M. and R. A. Houze, 1972: Analysis of the structure of precipitation patterns in New England. J. Appl. Meteor., 11, 926-935.

Austin, R. W. and T. J. Petzold, 1986: Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters. Opt. Eng., 25, 471-479.

Auteri, F., J. L. Guermond, and N. Parolini, 2001: Role of the LBB Condition in Weak Spectral Projection Methods. J. Compu. Phy., 174, 405-420.

Auteri, F. and N. Parolini, 2002: A Mixed-Basis Spectral Projection Method. J. Compu. Phy., 175, 1-23.

Auteri, F., L. Quartapelle, and L. Vigevano, 2002: Accurate omega-psi Spectral Solution of the Singular Driven Cavity Problem. J. Comp. Phy., 180, 597-615.

available from U.S. Government Printing Office.] Ochadlick, A. R., P. Cho, and J. Evans-Morgis, 1992: Synthetic aperture radar observations of currents colocated with slicks. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 5325-5330.

Avallone, L. M. and D. W. Toohey, 2001: Tests of halogen photochemistry using in situ measurements of ClO and BrO in the lower polar stratosphere (Paper 2000JD900831). J. Geophy. Res., 106, 10,411-10,422.

avenue Giuseppe-Motta, G., S. Woodruff, S. D., R. J. Slutz, R. L. Jenne, and P. M. Steurer, 1987: A Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68, 1239-1250.

Averbuch, A., M. Israeli, and I. Yavneh, 2001: Computation for Electromigration in Interconnects of Microelectronic Devices. J. Comp. Phys., 167, 316.

Avery, W. M., 1985: Heat and your heart: Heat stress. Center for Environmental Physiology, 7.

Avery, W. M., 1988: Heat death toll in 1988. Center for Environmental Physiology, 4.

Avila, L. A. and G. B. Clark, 1989: Atlantic tropical systems of 1988. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 2260-2265.

Avis, L. M., J. Paden, R. B. L. III, D. K. Pandey, J. C. Stassi, R. S. Wilson, C. J. Tolson, and W. C. Bolden, 1994: NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination. NASA Tech. Memo. 109086. NASA/ Langley Research Center Hampton VA, 26.

Avissar, R., 1992: Conceptual aspects of a statistical dynamical approach to represent landscape sub-grid scale heterogeneities in atmospheric models. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2729-2742.

Avissar, R. and F. Chen, 1993: Development and analysis of prognostic equations for mesoscale kinetic energy and mesoscale (subgrid-scale) fluxes for large scale atmospheric models. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 3751-3774.

Avissar, R., E. W. Eloranta, K. Gurer, and G. J. Tripoli, 1988: An evalution of the large-eddy simulation option of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System in simulating a convective boundary layer: A FIFE case study. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 1109-1130.

Avissar, R., E. W. Eloranta, K. Gürer, and G. J. Tripoli, 1998: An Evaluation of the Large-Eddy Simulation Option of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System in Simulating a Convective Boundary Layer: A FIFE Case Study. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 1109-1130.

Avissar, R. and R. A. Pielke, 1989: A parameterization of heterogeneous land surfaces for atmospheric numeric models and its impact on regional meteorology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 21132136.

Avissar, R. and T. Schmidt, 1998: An Evaluation of the Scale at which Ground-Surface Heat Flux Patchiness Affects the Convective Boundary Layer Using Large-Eddy Simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 2666-2689.

Aviv University. Liu, W. T., K. B. Katsaros, and J. A. Businger, 1979: Bulk parameterization of air-sea exchanges of heat and water vapor including the molecular constraints at the interface. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1722-1735.

Awaji, T., K. Akitomo, and N. Imasato, 1991: Numerical study of shelf water motion driven by the Kuroshio: Barotropic model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 11-27.

Awaka, J., Y. Furuhama, M. Hoshiyama, and A. Nishitsuji, 1985: Model calculations of scattering properties of spherical bright-band particles made of composite dielectrics. J. Radia Res., 32, 73-87.

Axelsson, O., 1976: A class of iterative methods for finite element equations. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 9, 123-137.

Axelsson, O., 1985: A survey of vectorizable preconditioning methods for large scale finite element matrix problems. BIT, 25, 166-187.

Axelsson, O., 1994: Iterative Solution Methods. Cambridge University Press, 654.

Axelsson, O. and V. A. Barker, 1984: Finite Element Solution of Boundary Value Problems, Theory and Computation. Academic Press, 432.

Axford, D. N., 1968: On the accuracy of wind measurements using an inertial platform in an aircraft, and an example of a measurement of the vertical mesostructure of the atmosphere. J. Appl. Meteor., 7, 645-666.

Aydin, K., V. N. Bringi, and L. Liu, 1995: Rainrate estimation in the presence of hail using S-band specific differential phase and other radar parameters. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 404-410.

Aydin, K., Y. Lure, and T. A. Seliga, 1990: Polarimetric radar measurements of rainfall compared with ground-based rain gauges during MAYPOLE '84. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 28, 443-449.

Aydin, K., T. A. Seliga, and V. Balaji, 1986: Remote sensing of hail with a duallinear polarization radar. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 1475-1484.

Aydin, K. and Y. Zhao, 1990: A computational study of polarimetric radar observables in hail. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 28, 412-422.

Aydin, K., Y. Zhao, and T. A. Seliga, 1989: Rain-induced attenuation effects on C-band dual-polarization meteorological radars. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 27, 57-66.

Ayers, G. P. and T. V. Larson, 1990: Numerical study of droplet size dependent chemistry in oceanic, wintertime stratus clouds at southern midlatitude. J. Atmos. Chem., 11, 143-167.

Aylor, D. E. and T. K. Flesch, 2001: Estimating Spore Release Rates Using a Lagrangian Stochastic Simulation Model. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 1196-1208.

Ayotte, B. A. and H. J. Fernando, 1994: The motion of a turbulent thermal in the presence of background rotation. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 1989-1994.

Ayotte, K. W. and Coauthors, 1996: An evaluation of neutral and convective planetary boundary layer parameterizations relative to large eddy simulations. Bound.-Layer Meteor., in press.

Azadi, M., U. C. Mohanty, O. P. Madan, and B. Padmanabhamurty, 2002: Prediction of precipitation associated with a western disturbance using a high-resolution regional model: role of parameterisation of physical processes. Meteor. Appl., 9, 317-326.